Hatena::ブログ(Diary)

田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

2016-02-19

euphoric 復習

 北朝鮮が今月7日にミサイルを発射しましたが,そもそもなぜこのような行動に出たのでしょうか。その理由を検討する記事になります。推測によれば,北朝鮮中国に対して存在感を増したいからであると書かれております。昨年,中国韓国は6度にわたるサミットを開き,中国にとって韓国は重要な国であると述べさせております。一方北朝鮮に対してはサミットを1度も開いておりませんでした。

 記事の中で気になった単語は"euphoric"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)によると「大喜びの, 幸福感にあふれた」などという意味がありました。Oxford Dictionaries.comには"Characterized by or feeling intense excitement and happiness"と定義されております。同じサイトで"happiness"を調べると"The state of being happy"とあり,両者の違いは,幸福の中に興奮が入り混じっているか否かであると思いました。(Ume)

North Korea rocket launch: Why did Kim fire missile now?

That test had a weapon yield of about 10 kilotons, less than 1% of a traditional H-bomb. It was also smaller than a typical boosted weapon yield, which even North Korea apparently expected would be around 50 kilotons because the North buried the weapon more than twice as deep as its third nuclear test.

Observers have generally said that the fourth test was not an H-bomb, and thus a failure for the North Korean regime despite the euphoric public response the regime tried to incite in the aftermath of the test.

While China was seriously upset by the fourth nuclear test, its refusal to support further sanctions against North Korea suggests that China is concerned about worsening the instability in North Korea.

So the regime needs a success. This space launch may be enough to achieve that political objective.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35516199

euphoria - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

“active couch potato”

だいぶ前の話になりますが,気になる語がありますので,アップいたします。NHKの情報番組「あさイチ」(2016年2月8日放送分)を見ておりましたら,たまたま「アクティブ・カウチポテト」という言葉を耳にしました。「カウチポテト」は以前のブログの記事で説明されており,「⦅おもに米⦆[通例軽べつして]カウチポテト(ソファーにごろんと寝そべって(スナックを食べ)テレビやビデオばかりを見ている人)」(『スーパーアンカー英和辞典』第5版,学研教育出版)(“someone who spends a lot of time sitting and watching television”—LDOCE5)とあります。“active couch potato”とは,「運動する習慣がある人で,特に座っている時間が運動している時間よりも長い人」のことを言います。要は,「運動習慣があるカウチポテト」ということです。座っている時間が長いと,心筋梗塞糖尿病肥満などの生活習慣病リスクが高まることが指摘されているようです。それを予防するには,30分座ったら2-3分立って動く,または,それと同じような効果のある運動をすることがいいと「あさイチ」(2016年2月8日放送分)は伝えていました。

使用例です。

How Sitting Too Much Is Making Us Sick and Fat -- And What to Do About It

There's no question that regular exercise is essential to health. For the vast majority of our evolutionary history, we've had to exert ourselves -- often quite strenuously -- to get food, find shelter and simply survive. We naturally spent a lot of time outdoors in the sun, walking, hunting, gathering, and performing various other physically-oriented tasks. We had no concept of this as "exercise" or "working out." It was just life.

Things are different today. Most people in modern societies spend the majority of their time indoors, sitting on their butts (like you're probably doing right now). The typical U.S. adult is sedentary for 60 percent of their waking hours and sits for an average of six hours per day (and often much more, in the case of those who work primarily on computers). In fact, being sedentary is now the norm and exercise is primarily seen as an intervention -- something we do to guard against the negative impacts of a sedentary lifestyle.

An Epidemic of Sedentary Behavior: The Perils of Too Much Sitting

This increase in sedentary time and decrease in physical activity has profoundly impacted our health. Too much sitting is associated with numerous problems, ranging from weight gain, to osteoporosis, to cardiovascular disease. For example, research has shown that:

• Sitting decreases the activity of an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase (LPL),   which helps burn fat.

• Too much sedentary time decreases bone mineral density without increasing bone formation, which raises the risk of fracture.

• Excess sitting increases blood pressure and decreases the diameter of arteries,  both of which make heart disease more likely.

Even worse, too much sitting could shorten your life. Studies in the U.S., Canada, Australia and Asia have all found an association between increased sedentary time and the risk of early death. These associations were independent of traditional risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, waist circumference and diet.

The "Active Couch Potato": Why Exercise Isn't Enough

I'm sure this isn't news to you; most people are aware that physical activity is essential to good health. But what you may not know is that too much sitting time is harmful even if you're getting enough exercise.

This means you could be meeting the recommended guidelines for exercise (i.e., 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity, five days a week), but still be at higher risk of disease if you sit for long periods each day. In fact, a large study involving over 100,000 U.S. adults found that those who sat for more than six hours a day had up to a 40 percent greater risk of death over the next 15 years than those who sat for less than three hours a day. Most importantly, this effect occurred regardless of whether the participants exercised. Some research even suggests that people who exercise intensely (like marathon runners) are more likely to be sedentary when they're not exercising. They may assume that their training regimen protects them from the harmful effects of too much sitting when they're not exercising. It doesn't.

In industrialized societies, this "active couch potato" phenomenon has become the norm rather than the exception. If you work in an office, commute by car and watch a few hours of TV each night, it's not hard to see how you could spend the vast majority of your waking life (up to 15 hours!) sitting on your butt. This is far outside of evolutionary norms for humans, and has serious consequences for our health.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/chris-kresser/sitting-health_b_2897289.html

https://www.nhk.or.jp/asaichi/2016/02/08/01.html

これは2013年の記事ですが,だいぶ前から話題になっていたことに驚きました。スポーツをやっていようとそうでなかろうと,30分座ったら2分くらいを目安に立つ」を意識したいところです。(Kawada)

skeleton key

昨年12月にカリフォルニア州で起こったテロ事件の捜査で、FBIAppleに対し容疑者の所持していたiPhoneの情報解析のためにロック解除を求めたところ、Appleはこの命令を拒否しました。

Apple Fights Order to Unlock San Bernardino Gunman’s iPhone

FRANCISCO — Apple said on Wednesday that it would oppose and challenge a federal court order to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.

On Tuesday, in a significant victory for the government, Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym of the Federal District Court for the District of Central California ordered Apple to bypass security functions on an iPhone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, who was killed by the police along with his wife, Tashfeen Malik, after they attacked Mr. Farook’s co-workers at a holiday gathering.

Judge Pym ordered Apple to build special software that would essentially act as a skeleton key capable of unlocking the phone.

http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/02/18/technology/apple-timothy-cook-fbi-san-bernardino.html?_r=0

今回取り上げるのは、“skeleton key”という表現です。この表現をLDOCEで調べてみると、“a key made to open a number of different locks”という定義が見つかりました。“skeleton”には「(人や動物などの)骨格、(建物などの)骨組み」といった意味があるため、これらの意味から転じて、“skeleton key”で「合い鍵、親鍵、万能鍵」と表せると考えられます。「合い鍵」と聞くと、“master key”や“spare key”、“pass key”も思い浮かぶので、これらと併せて覚えておきたいです。(ninetails)

http://d.hatena.ne.jp/A30/touch/20110318/1300444667

http://d.hatena.ne.jp/A30/touch/20140224/1393205455

cease-and-desist letter

大統領選に向けた共和党候補者指名争いの第3戦、サウスカロライナ州予備選を週末に控え、テッド・クルーズ上院議員マルコ・ルビオ上院議員、元神経外科医のベン・カーソン氏が17日夜、CNNが主催する対話集会に参加しました。集会の大半は他の候補者に対する非難で占められた。

(CNN)—Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio struck markedly different tones at CNN's Republican presidential town hall Wednesday night, with Cruz prosecuting his case while Rubio made a more personal appeal.

Cruz said that he "laughed out loud" when he learned of the cease-and-desist letter Donald Trump's campaign sent his team for running an ad highlighting his opponent's former position on abortion rights.

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/02/17/politics/republican-town-hall-highlights/index.html

今回取り上げる表現は,“cease-and-desist letter”です。『ジーニアス英和辞典』(大修館書店)には,載っていませんでしたが,“cease and desist order”「(米国行政機関の)停止命令」が記載されていました。このことから,“cease and desist”には,「停止」といった意味があると推測しました。そこで「英辞郎on the web」を調べてみると,「停止通告書」とありました。また,“cease”は,違反行為の即時停止,“desist”には,将来にわたって違反行為を再開しないことを意味しているとも載っていました。(Nao)