田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から



スキャンダルが絶えない与党ですが,安倍内閣支持率はその影響をあまり受けていないようです。見出しのTeflonは商標登録されている「フッ素樹脂の一つであるポリテトラフルオロエチレンの商標名」(『スーパー大辞林三省堂)のことですが,これに加えて比喩的に「スキャンダルなどを寄せ付けない」という形容詞用法があります(『プログレッシブ英和中辞典小学館)。英英辞書にもa plastic that stops things from sticking to it, used on the inside of pans to stop food sticking to the panLDOCE)とあることから,「汚れにくい」という性質がこの意味の由来であると考えられます。(Koyamamoto)

Scandals keep bouncing off Teflon-coated ruling party

TOKYO -- Japan's cabinet and ruling Liberal Democratic Party are having some naughty issues.

In January, Akira Amari had to resign as economy minister after he became embroiled in a money scandal. But as far as political consequences for the LDP go, there really weren't any.

The scandal failed to drag down the approval ratings of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's cabinet -- even though opposition lawmakers tried to make an issue of it.

This allowed LDP lawmakers to breathe a huge sigh of relief -- and maybe even give them reason to be a bit careless.




 記事の中で気になった単語は"grievous"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)によると「深刻[重大]な <過ち・犯罪・けがなど>; 悲嘆すべき」などという意味がありました。Oxford Dictionaries.comには"(Of something bad) very severe or serious"と定義されております。語源は古フランス語の"greveus"に由来するようです(Oxford Dictionaries.com)。(Ume)

Cyclone Winston: Clean-up begins as death toll jumps to 20

Red Cross Pacific office head Ahmad Sami told AFP news agency humanitarian needs were likely to be "very high".

Oxfam's Pacific Regional Director Raijeli Nicole said the scale of the disaster would become clear once communications were restored with the remote areas worst affected.

"The Fijians are desperately trying to repair severed lines of communication, but they hold grave fears that the news waiting for them will be dire," she said.

Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama described the storm on Saturday as "an ordeal of the most grievous kind".

"When we are able, we will provide timelines for the return of water and power," he said.

Tourism Minister Faiyaz Siddiq Koya said the storm had caused widespread devastation, but insisted that "all visitors are safe and comfortable", despite a lack of communication with some areas.



Catastrophic damage will occur: A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last for weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.







bookworm 復習


In the News / Nozomi Abe / Bookworm girl wins high school book review contest

A 17-year-old girl from Oita Prefecture won the latest high school Bibliobattle — a book review contest where contestants introduce their favorite books and the audience votes for the one they most want to read based on the contestants’ presentations.

Nozomi Abe, 17, won the 2015 high school Bibliobattle, in which 636 high schools from 40 prefectures participated.

Abe’s choice was “Zanzo ni Kuchibeni o” (Lipstick for afterimage), an experimental novel written by Yasutaka Tsutsui and published by Chuokoron-Shinsha, Inc. The book’s protagonist, a writer, depicts a world where the letters used to make words gradually disappear, as do people and objects related to those letters.


“bookworm”を取り上げます。一目で「本の虫」に相当する語だと推測できます。確認のため辞書を開くと「1.読書家、勉強家、本の虫 2.本をむしばむ虫」とあり、LDOCEでは” 1.someone who likes reading very much 2.an insect that eats books”と定義されています。本むしばむ虫、シミ(紙魚)”silverfish”やチャタテムシ”booklice” ,”psocoptera”の習性からこの表現が生まれたのでしょうか。日本的な表現だと思っていましたが、それに相当する概念が、それも”bookworm”という、いかにもな形で存在することに驚きです。

広辞苑で「むし」を索引すると、「あることに熱中する人」との記載もありますが、英語にはそれに該当する語義があるのでしょうか?(調べた限りでは確認できませんでしたが) 皆さんには取るに足らない表現かもしれませんが、私には興味深く思えたものでここに取り上げさせていただきました。(あいづ)

outmaneuver #2


Jeb Bush Bows Out of Campaign, Humbled and Outmaneuvered

COLUMBIA, S.C. — Jeb Bush dropped out of the presidential race on Saturday, ending a quest for the White House that started with a war chest of $100 million, a famous name and a promise of political civility but concluded with a humbling recognition: In 2016, none of it mattered.

No single candidacy this year fell so short of its original expectations. It began with an aura of inevitability that masked deep problems, from Mr. Bush himself, a clunky candidate in a field of gifted performers, to the rightward drift of the Republican Party since Mr. Bush’s time as a consensus conservative in Florida.


今回取り上げるのは、“outmaneuver”という表現です。この単語をLDOCEで調べてみると、“to gain an advantage over someone by using cleverer or more skillful plans or methods”と定義されていました。さらに『ジーニアス英和辞典』(大修館書店)でも確認してみると、「〜に策略で勝つ、〜の裏をかく」といった意味が記載されていました。また、今回の単語表記はアメリカ英語ですが、イギリス英語では“outmanoeuvre”と表記されます。




In his emotional seven-minute farewell to a Republican Party that elevated his father and brother to the White House, there were two words that a choked-up Jeb Bush could not bring himself to utter: “Donald Trump.”

With Mr. Bush’s exit, mainstream Republicans did not just lose a beloved would-be standard-bearer. They are now bereft of the single most forceful and outspoken detractor of Mr. Trump in the presidential campaign. In debate after debate, and rally after rally, Mr. Bush questioned Mr. Trump’s tactics, his qualifications, his judgment, his worldview and his very decency.


今回取り上げる表現は,“standard-bearer”です。“bearer”には,「(手紙などの)使者,運搬する人」といった意味があります。では,“standard”と共に用いることでどのような意味になるのか。Merriam-Webster onlineを確認してみると,“the leader of an organization, movement, or political party”とありました。また,「コトバンク」を見てみると,「(政党・運動の)主唱者, 唱導者」と載っていました。ここでは,これらの意味が適していると思います。(Nao)