Hatena::ブログ(Diary)

田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

2017-09-03

wilt 復習

日本ではあまり馴染みのないレシピです。

Sautéed Swiss Chard with Bell Pepper & Onion

Heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Cook pepper and onions, stirring occasionally, for about five minutes. Add half of Swiss chard, season with salt and pepper, and cook, tossing often, until wilted, about 4 minutes. Add lemon juice and remaining chard and cook, tossing, just until all chard is wilted, about 1 minute; season with salt and pepper. Yield: 4 servings

http://m.illinoisfarmertoday.com/feature/recipes/vegetables/saut-ed-swiss-chard-with-bell-pepper-onion/article_c4aa27a8-8e67-11e7-ac17-6bd7dd1f22ac.html?mobile_touch=true

wiltに注目しました。

ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版,大修館)を引いたところ、「(草花などが)しおれる;(人が)しょげる」などと載っておりました。Oxford Dictionary of English(Second Edition Reserved, Oxford University Press)には、 "become limp through heat, loss of water, or disease; droop"や "leave in the open to dry partially before being collected for silage"などと書かれておりました。ここでは料理用語として「しんなり」といった訳がしっくりくると思います。(Gomez)

cf. wither

wilt 回答 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

gang up on 復習

More teenagers commit suicide on this day in Japan than any other day of the year

The overall number of suicides has been steadily falling in Japan since 2003, but the number of youth suicides has stayed relatively stable, in part, some say, because of a widespread culture of bullying (paywall) in Japanese schools. The collective of Japanese classrooms, and society at large, means that bullying in schools often takes the form of a large group ganging up on someone, rather than just a few individuals, according to the Economist (paywall).

Vickie Skorji, director of TELL Lifeline, which provides counseling services in Japan, said media coverage is another factor, as young people who are already struggling and considering suicide see news story about the times when suicides peak. “That starts to build an association with [it being] a good time to act,” she adds.

(一部抜粋)

https://qz.com/1067558/in-japan-more-teenagers-commit-suicide-on-sept-1-than-any-other-day-of-the-year-because-of-anxiety-of-going-back-to-school/

 gang up onという表現に注目しました。『ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版,大修館)で調べたところ、「(人)を束になって襲う,袋叩きにする,集団でいじめる」と載っておりました。LDOCE(6th)には “if people gang up on someone, they join together to attack, criticize, or oppose them, especially in a way that seems unfair”と説明されておりました。onのかわりにagainstを使うこともできるようです。(Gomez

gang up on - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

ear-splitting noise

 在日米軍は1日、横須賀基地に入港中の米空母ロナルド・レーガン艦載機部隊による模擬着艦訓練を厚木基地で始めました。

Deafening U.S. exercise returns to Atsugi after 5-year hiatus

The U.S. military embarked on a six-day simulated training exercise at a base known for its ear-splitting noise levels, prompting protests from the Kanagawa prefectural governor and Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera.

Aircraft from the USS Ronald Reagan based at Yokosuka Naval Base began touch-and-go landing practice on Sept. 1 at U.S. Naval Air Facility Atsugi.

以下省略

http://www.asahi.com/sp/ajw/articles/AJ201709020024.html

 “ear-splitting noise”を取り上げます。“ear”「耳」と“split”「割く」が組み合わさってできた単語です。『ウィズダム英和辞典』を引いたところ、「耳をつんざくような、とても大きな〈音・声など〉」とありました。また、LDOCEでは短く“very loud”と定義されています。『ウィズダム英和辞典』の定義にもあるように、日本語にはものが聞こえなくなるほどの大きな音を「耳をつんざかんばかりの音」というように表現することがありますが、英語でも“ear”と“split”で同じような感覚で表現しており、訳すときにおア互い上手くマッチする表現だと思います。(Blue Sky)

bluster

 北朝鮮は,水爆を弾頭に載せて発射するテストが成功裏に終わったと述べました。それ以前に6回の核実験を行い,いずれも成功したと発表しております。

 記事の中で気になった単語は"bluster"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)を調べると「<人が> いばりちらして言う, <風・波などが> 荒れ狂う」などという意味がありました。専門家によると,北朝鮮の声明は注意深く判断する必要があるが,核への技術は確実に向上していると述べております。(Ume)

North Korea nuclear test: Hydrogen bomb 'missile-ready'

North Korea's sixth nuclear test - probably its largest so far - sends out one clear political signal.

Despite the bluster and threats from the Trump administration in Washington and near-universal condemnation from around the world, Pyongyang is not going to halt or constrain its nuclear activities.

Worryingly, it also suggests that this is a programme that is progressing on all fronts at a faster rate than many had expected. So far all efforts to pressure North Korea - sanctions, isolation, and military threats - have all failed to move Pyongyang.

Could more be done? Certainly, but the harshest economic pressure would potentially cripple the regime and push it towards catastrophe - something China is unwilling to countenance.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-41139445

fret #2 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

stiletto #2

 ハリケーンハービーへの被災対策によって,トランプ大統領の手腕が問われます。米国で4番めに人口が多いヒューストンは水没被害に会い,10万棟以上の家屋に被害が出ました。

 記事の中で気になった単語は"stiletto"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)をみると「(ピンヒールの) 細いヒール, ピンヒールの靴」などという意味がありました。大統領夫人が被災地にヒールを履いて登場したことに対しては批判が出ております。(Ume)

Harvey puts Trump's crisis management skills to the test

After the tragedy caused by Hurricane Harvey, Donald Trump managed to oversee a federal emergency with only minimal distraction.

When the president headed to Texas and Louisiana on Saturday, the mood on Air Force One was serious.

A digital clock on the plane was set to Washington and "destination" time, and people wondered what they would see on the ground.

The president wore a jacket and carried a red baseball cap. White House staffers were dressed in jeans and flat shoes and seemed ready for anything. In contrast, First Lady Melania Trump wore snake-skin-style stilettos, later changing into trainers with bright, white laces.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-41139158

stiletto heel - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

scallion

 茨城常陸太田市名物「粢(しとぎ) 納豆小粒」の紹介記事から表現を取り上げます。

Travelers’ Treasures / Shitogi Natto Shoryu (Fermented soybeans)

Shitogi Natto Shoryu is created by a long-established natto manufacturer with a history stretching back more than 60 years, using a type of soybean called natto shoryu. Sourced from Ibaraki Prefecture, natto shoryu is an easy-to-cultivate variety of soybean which has received exceptional acclaim among natto manufacturers for use in natto.

中略

To make Shitogi Natto Shoryu even more enjoyable to eat, it is seasoned not with the usual imported dried scallions but with dried kujo scallions sourced from Kyoto.

以下省略

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003841738

 気になったのは “scallion” / skælyən / です。前後から食材であることを予測し, 『リーダーズ英和中辞典』(研究社)で確認すると, 「[植]青ネギ, ワケギ」とありました。ここでは, 本品に付いている京都産「九条ねぎ」を表しています。The Free Dictionary.comには “a bunching onion or a young onion harvested before the bulb develops; also called green onion” と定義されていました。

 接尾辞 “-ion” は, “onion”, “scallion” ともに共通していますが, 前者の語源はラテン語の “union”, 後者は同語の “ascalonia” とされており, 由来は異なっています(Merriam-Webster.com)。

 ちなみに商品名となっている「粢」とは, 米粉で作った長円形の餅を指し, 神に供えるものとされていることから, 英語に置き換わる語はないようです(『古語辞典』新版, 角川書店)。(Cayu)

参考サイト

kanko-hitachiota.com

dietary 復習

 人材派遣会社パソナグループ酪農業人材育成を促進するため、本社13階に牧場を開きました。そこには、牛、アルパカなど8種の動物が飼育されています。なお、一般公開はされていません。

Pasona Group Inc., a major staffing agency, has recently opened a “bokujo,” or farm, on the 13th floor of its head office building as part of efforts to promote its program for human resources development in dairy farming.

With a floor space of about 1,000 square meters, “Otemachi Bokujo,” which refers to a district north of Tokyo Station, keeps animals of eight species, including cattle, goats and an alpaca.

The farm is not open to the public, but does offer seminars on dietary education, human resources development courses on dairy farming and other events to allow participants to interact with the animals.

Pasona has relocated its head office to open the farm.

以下省略

http://www.asahi.com/sp/ajw/articles/AJ201709020005.html

 今回気になった単語は"dietary"/ dάɪətèri /です。"diet"という単語が含まれているため、食事関係の意味だという予測ができます。『ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版,大修館)を引いたところ、「食物の、食餌療法の、規定食の」と載っておりました。"dietary education" で「食育」とわかります。(large lake)

interrogation 復習

群馬県で片手に手錠をしたまま逃走中であったベトナム人男性が逮捕されました。

Vietnamese turns himself in after biting cop, escaping in handcuffs

MAEBASHI, GUNMA PREF. – A Vietnamese man was arrested Friday for allegedly obstructing police duties after escaping from an officer who attempted to handcuff him during a traffic stop the previous day.

Nguyen Van Hai, 31, was taken into custody after showing up at a convenience store in Kumagaya, Saitama Prefecture, after contacting a Vietnamese acquaintance in her 20s and saying he wished to turn himself in, the police said Saturday.

He had been on the run since around 11:15 a.m. Thursday, when he was stopped and questioned in the town of Oizumi in neighboring Gunma Prefecture after he was spotted driving a dented car, they said.

The officer tried to handcuff the suspect when he resisted interrogation, but he bit the officer’s arm and fled with the cuffs on one hand, the police said.

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/09/02/national/crime-legal/vietnamese-turns-biting-cop-escaping-handcuffs/#.WaqtAYGRWEc

取り上げる単語は"interrogation"/ɪntèrəgéɪʃən/です。『ジーニアス英和辞典』第4版(大修館)で調べてみると、「質問、尋問、審問、疑問、取り調べ」とありました。犯人は職務質問中に手錠をかけられそうになり、警察の腕に噛み付いて手錠をかけたまま逃げたということが分かります。

 因みに"interrogation mark"で「疑問符」,"interrogative question"で「疑問文」という意味になります。LDOCEでは、"to ask someone a lot of questions for a long time in order to get information, sometimes using threats"と定義されています。(Akim)


interrogation - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

cataclysmic

 次々に新開発を果たすTOYOTAですがどこまで変化を求めるのでしょうか。

NAGOYA (Jiji Press)— Toyota Motor Corp. sees the need to revive its founding spirit in an era of intense competition amid cataclysmic changes the automobile industry is going through.

Leaving its post-World War II crisis far behind, Toyota, which marked the 80th anniversary of its foundation on Monday, has grown into one of the world’s leading automakers, with annual new vehicle sales of over 10 million units.

But its future is not guaranteed. As the industry faces a shift away from gasoline to electric vehicles and challenges from ride-sharing services, competition is heating up, throwing the company into what President Akio Toyoda has described as “uncharted territory.”

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003914491

 取り上げるのは”cataclysmic” /kæ̀təklɪ́zmɪk/です。”cata-“は接頭辞で「下に向かって、反して」などの意味があります。『ジーニアス英和辞典』で調べたところ、形容詞で「激変的な、大変異の、非常に悪い[ひどい]」とありました。また、名詞”cataclysm”では「大洪水;地殻の激変、地震、(政治的・社会的)大変動、戦争」という意味があります。LDOCEでは、”cataclysm”で”a violet or sudden event or change, such as a serious flood or earthquake”と定義されていました。

no-frills #4

 いつでも手軽に安い料金で利用できる「24時間ジム」が増えています。

24-hour gyms get in the zone in Japan offering no-frills workouts, easy access

Twenty-four-hour gyms are proving popular not only in the cities but also in the suburbs, giving busy workers the option to squeeze in a bit of exercise during off hours.

These gym are popping up in greater numbers — fitted with training machines but without swimming pools or dance studios typical in traditional fitness centers.

(省略)

The gyms are cheaper to set up and maintain because they can cut back on manpower and rent. Fees are thus cheaper. Traditional fitness clubs usually charge users a monthly fee of \10,000 or more. Most 24-hour gyms cost less than that.

https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/09/01/business/urban-japan-seeing-surge-24-hour-gyms/#.Wapo1eNuJdg

 “no-frills”を取りあげます。

 『ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版、大修館書店)で調べると「(物・サービスが)余計なもののない、実質本位の」とありました。プールがなかったり、インストラクターの人数が少ないことを表しています。

また、“frills”のみを引いてみると「余分なもの、装飾的な物」とありました。『ブルーワー英語故事成語辞典』(大修館)によると、気取った服装や態度も“frills”で表現でき、“to put on frills”で「気取る」となるそうです。(flying bird)

no-frills #3 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

no-frills - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

Persimmon 柿生講座#2「no-frills」 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から