Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2016;12:217-47. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093034. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
Gender Dysphoria in Adults.
Zucker KJ1, Lawrence AA2, Kreukels BP3.
1 Gender Identity Clinic, Child, Youth, and Family Services, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada; email: email@example.com.
2 Department of Psychology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4, Canada.
3 Department of Medical Psychology, VU University Medical Center and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands.
Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.
causal mechanisms; gender dysphoria; gender identity disorder; transsexualism; treatment
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