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2011-09-20

霊長類行動学2. 生息環境、移動方法、食(Habitat, Locomotion, Diet)

霊長類行動学もくじ

Habitat(生息環境)

  • most are found in Tropics
  • They live in
    • jungle, forest
      • no primate use entire part of tree.
      • some stay on the top, some stay on the middle, some stay on the bottom..
    • savanna
      • Open grassland
      • 草むらを歩き回るが、寝るときは木の上。
    • Sulawesi
      • インドネシア中部にある島
    • Madagascar (Limar lives)
      • マダガスカル
  • continent they do NOT live in
    • Australia
    • Europe except Gibraltar
    • ジブラルタル◆スペインとモロッコの間の海峡。地中海への出入り口。スペイン・ジブラルタルは英国統治下の岬。
    • Most place in Arabian

  • seasonality
    • rainy season
      • determine productivity of forest.
      • it gets the most productive just after the rain.
        • leads fluctuation (変動) of food supply
        • impact on primate behaviors

  • Habitat also influences grouping
    1. spacial distribution of food (in terms of trees)
    2. continuous v. patchy (in terms of territory)
      • spread out or more spotted
    3. predator defense
      • especially, big rats, raptors

locomotion (移動方法)

  • substrate (生息環境) determined by locomotion
    1. Quadrupedal (四足歩行)
      1. terrestrial(陸上の): tend to have short fingers
        • e.g., Baboon
      2. arboreal(樹木の): habitually walk on a top of tree trunk
    2. Slow climber: tend to have short index fingers
      • e.g., loris
    3. Suspensory (ぶらさがっている)
    4. Leaper(跳躍する系): jump on trees, one branch to another
    5. vertical clinging and leaping
      • e.g., Galagoes
    6. hanging underneith of branches by long arms. (Brachiation)
      • they have enormous range of reach
      • e.g., Hylobatidae (テナガザル)
    7. knuckle-walking: こぶしで歩く理由は、長い腕がゆえに手を広げて歩こうとすると筋肉が突っ張るから。
    8. Bipedal
      • e.g., Humans

Diet(食)

  1. Frugivore (果食動物): eat fruit
  2. Folivore (葉食動物): eat leaves
  3. Insectivore (食虫動物)
  4. Gumivore: tree sap
  5. Granivore (穀食動物): seeds
  6. main diet can be fit into triangle of fruits, leaves, and insects.
    • no animals can live by only depending on one of them.

Needs for diet
  1. Protein: amino-acid
    • from beans, rice, etc
    • regular cell contents
    • insects
      • pro:
        • super abundant
        • tasty, do not contain secondary compound like plants
        • chitin coat
      • con:
        • small packages and need energy to catch (except ants that is too abundant)
          • Kay's threshold(だいたい500g/1lbs)よりも大きな動物は虫に加えフルーツをたべる必要がある
            • metabolism is slower if you are big but absolute energy need is bigger. Eating bugs is a good way if the body is small
            • 500g以下のprimateは大抵noctornalのに限る
    • fruits
      • poor source for protein (mainly for energy)
    • leaves
      • good source
      • problem:
        • surrounded by a structural carbohydrate, consisting of cellulose, chitin, and keratin, that cannot be broken down
          • ケラチン(英: keratin)とは、細胞骨格を構成するタンパク質の一つ。
      • 2 ways to get protein from leaves
        1. Slice leaves to expose cell content
        2. ferment
          • foregut fermenters like cows
          • hindgut fermenters like horses
          • problem: takes too long time (gut passage time - correlated with size of body mass)
  2. Energy: carbohydrate, fat, sugar, oils
    • from regular cell contents
      • plants
        • mostly fiber and water in cell of plants, but still some
    • insects
      1. super abundant
      2. tasty (do not contain secondary compound like plants)
      3. chitin coat
        • キチン質はキチンとキトサンの総称。節足動物の外皮、菌類の細胞壁の主成分。
      4. small packages
      5. harder to catch
    • ripe fruit, from seeds, unripe fruit, etc
  3. minerals and vitamins
    • from dirt
  4. water

  5. Fruitやleavesを食べる者たちはsocial structureに団体行動、縄張りを与える

霊長類行動学もくじ

霊長類行動学もくじ