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霊長類行動学12. オスとメスの関係パターン


male-female interactions

  • mating
    • primate-male occur with group (odd in animals)
  • female concerns male only as a mate
    • except Marmoset - expect them to take care of child

  • What people think Human male provide
    • resources?
    • protection? - really? from what?
  • primate male does not protect by fighting females
    • there is an evidence that Baboon males even run away faster than females when they are in danger

Male association with females

  • 1. Access to mates partners
    • females need partner, too.
  • 2. Access to resources
    • females disperse based on food availability
    • so male get benefit from going to female place so that he can also get access to food
      • bad for females
  • 3. protection from predators ※but not fight
    • need to be wathful from
      • on tree -> raptor like eagles
      • on ground -> lepard etc
  • 4. male parental care (some male can care)
    • usually males don't do anything, but sometimes.
  • 5. male threat
    • male coersion for mating
      • male forcing female to mate with him
        • costly behavior - in terms of time
        • costly for females as well - increase stress level
    • male may commit infanticide

Mating is a selfish act

  • can see this in terms of cost and benefit for male/female
female costs
  • injury
  • disease (性病とか)
  • energy (sex skin development)
  • time
  • predation risk
  • food competitor

female benefits
  • can assess male quality, can provide infant care, help protect from predator, protect from other males
Male cost
  • competition with other males
    •  >injury
    •  >disease
  • stress
    • <-top-hormonly susceptible to disease
    • <-subordinate - also have
  • also, same risks of matings as females
Male Benefit
  • group membership reduces predation risk
  • access to females
  • females give males grooming care (increase health)
  • access to resources

Male-female interaction is not only mating

  • male friendship
    • help to move into group when transfered from other group.
    • sit peripheral of the group so that the male can be close to a female in the group
    • tool for mating opportunity
      • pattern of grooming care transfers into mating pattern


    • defense against multi-male influxes
      • female can be protected by the dominant male if she has a good relationship with him
      • female-choice - prefer dominant male


Multi-male species
  • female affiliation patterns
    • Papio - female affiliate more than one male
    • Therapethecus - each female affiliate with 1 male
    • Pan - play politics
      • female assists male in dominance
        • to be a dominant male, the male has to find a coalition partner, or helpful female
        • female help to reconcile by hand touching or hagging


female interaction

  • Don't deplete sperm
  • females Don't recruit male for group defense
    • females don't need male to defense
  • Callitrichids recruite male to increase male parental care
  • inhibit infanticide
    • other male can help avoid other male killing children


  • something unusual for primate
    • anthropoids phenomenon
      • Catarrhines (old world monkey)
      • Lemur - males are expelled
        • in captured situation, he gets killed.
    • dimorphism (males have)
      • larger size
      • huge canines
  • Papio hamadryas
    • males panish females
    • infanticide


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