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sinds 9 januari 2005

17-11-2005 アブダクション本

[]『Abductive Reasoning

Douglas Walton

(2004年刊行,The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, xvi+303 pp., ISBN:0817314415版元ページ



Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

1. Abductive, presumptive, and plausible arguments 1

Abductive inference 2

Peirce on the three types of reasoning 7

Peirce on the form of abductive inference 13

Scientific discovery and artificial intelligence 17

Abductive inference in legal evidence 22

Defeasible, plausible, and presumptive reasoning 26

Tentative definitions 31

Argumentation schemes 36

Araucaria as a tool for argument diagramming 43

2. A dialogue model of explanation 51

Types of explanation 52

Models of scientific explanation 56

Simulation, understanding, and making sense 60

Scripts, anchored narratives, and implicatures 66

The dialogue model of explanation 71

The speech act of explanation 78

Dialogue models of scientific argumentation and explanation 82

Examination dialogue and shared understanding 88

Dialectical shifts and embeddings 92

3. A procedural model of rationality 97

Computational dialectics 97

Reasoning as chaining of inferences 102

Forward and backward chaining rule-besed systems in artificial intelligence 105

The problem of enthymemes 111

Multiagent practical reasoning 115

Bounded rationality 120

4. Defeasible modus ponens arguments 122

A typical case of abductive reasoning in evdence law 122

Argumentation from consequences 129

Defeasible inferences and modus ponens 134

Conditionals and generalizations 138

Abductive inferences in medical diagnosis 143

Introducing defeasible modus ponens 147

Using defeasible modus ponens as an argumentation scheme 152

5. Abductive causal reasoning 158

Necessary and sufficient conditions 159

Forms of causal argumentation 163

Argument from correlation to cause 165

Abductive causal reasoning in law 169

Causal abduction in medical examination and diagnosis 175

Causal reasoning as dynamic improvement of a hypothesis 182

The thesis that causal reasoning is abductive 184

Causal explanations 188

The chain of reasoning in the accident case 191

Insights into causal argumentation yielded by the abductive theory 197

6. Query-driven abductive reasoning 206

Argument extrapolation by chaining forward 206

Colligation in chaining backward 209

The form of abductive inference revisited 214

Belief-desire-intention and commitment models 218

The abductive profile of dialogue 222

Abduction as a query-driven process 226

Discovery as an open process 229

Retraction of commitment 234

The four phases of abductive reasoning 239

7. Unsolved problems of abduction 243

Abduction and argumentation schemes 243

Enthymemes, argumentation schemes, and the defeadible modus ponens form of reasoning 248

The role of examination in science 252

Accounts and explanations 255

The problem of inconsistency 260

How abductive reasoning moves forward by examining competing accounts 263

Question-answering and critiquing systems in artificial intelligence 269

Summary of abduction as a heuristic 272

Notes 277

References 283

Index 295

Alex FetcherAlex Fetcher 2007/11/01 06:40 Great site!