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sinds 9 januari 2005

08-01-2006 アブダクションと科学哲学

[]『Abduction, Reason, and Science: Processes of Discovery and Explanation

Lorenzo Magnani

(2001年刊行,Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, ISBN:0306465140


【目次】

Foreword by Paul Thagard ix

Preface xi

Chapter 1: Hypothesis Generation 1

 1. Reminiscence, tacit knowledge, schematism 1

 2. Generate and test 11

Chapter 2: Theoretical Abduction 15

 1. What is abduction? 15

  1.1 Abduction and retroduction 15

  1.2 ST-MODEL and the syllogistic framework 17

  1.3 Abduction as hypothesis generation, abduction as hypothesis generation and evaluation 25

 2. The setential framework 29

  2.1 Abduction and induction in logic programming 36

 3. Model-based creative abduction 38

  3.1 Conceptual change and creative reasoning in science 38

  3.2 Model-based abduction 41

 4. Model-based heuristic and deductive reasoning 47

 5. Automatic abductive scientists 49

Chapter 3: Manipulative Abduction 53

 1. Manipulative abduction in scientific discovery 53

 2. Epistemic mediators and manipulative reasoning 59

 3. Segregated knowledge and the "world of paper" 63

 4. Non-conceptual and spatial abilities 67

Chapter 4: Diagnostic Reasoning 71

 1. Is medical reasoning abductive? 72

 2. Cognitive models 77

 3. The need for an epistemological architecture of medical KBSs 82

 4. NEOANEMIA 85

 5. Basic science reasoning and clinical reasoning interwined 88

 6. Cognitive models and medical education 92

 7. The centrality of abduction 94

Chapter 5: Visual and Temporal Abduction 97

 1. Visual abduction 97

  1.1 Visual imagery 97

  1.2 Knowledge representation scheme 98

  1.3 Imagery and problem-solving 105

  1.4 Visual abduction 106

 2. Temporal abduction 115

  2.1 Temporal reference 115

  2.2 Science and time: the forgotten dimension 116

  2.3 Computational philosophy of time 119

Chapter 6: Governing Inconsistencies 125

 1. Roads to changes in theoretical systems 125

 2. Governing inconsistencies in abductive reasoning 129

  2.1 Finding inconsistencies I: empirical anomalies 130

  2.2 Finding inconsistencies II: conceptual anomalies 133

  2.3 Generating inconsistencies by radical innovation 135

  2.4 Maintaining inconsistencies 136

  2.5 Contradicting, conflicting, failing 138

  2.6 Inconsistencies and narrative abduction 139

 3. Preinventive forms, disconfirming evidence, unexpected findings 140

Chapter 7: Hypothesis Withdrawal in Science 145

 1. Withdrawing unfalsifiable hypotheses 145

  1.1 Negation as failure in query evaluation 146

  1.2 Withdrawing constructions 149

  1.3 Withdrawing conventions 156

 2. Theoretical anomaly resolution 162

  2.1 Scientific concept formation and spatial thinking 162

  2.2 Anomaly resolution and spatial reasoning 163

References 171

Author Index 191

Subject Index 197


Alex FetcherAlex Fetcher 2007/11/01 06:26 Great site!
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