SFAA翻訳 [13-1]-[13-5]

| 05:22 | SFAA翻訳 [13-1]-[13-5]を含むブックマーク

 Science For All Americans翻訳プロジェクトにちょっと参加してみる。『Science For All Americans』という本(Webにも全文公開されている)がとても素晴らしいので、日本語でも読めるように勝手に翻訳しようというプロジェクト。id:sivad さんが提案され黒影さんがプロジェクト立ち上げ・マネージメントをされているもの。


第13章 効果的な学習と教育

 「Science For All Americans」は生徒が何を学ぶべきかを重要視しているが、科学がどのように教えられるかもそれと同様に重要なことだと認識している。授業計画を考える際、効率的な教師は、日々解明が進む学習の性質についての研究成果や、長年吟味されてきた指導法に関する高度な知識を利用する。通常、彼らは学習内容についての特別な性質、生徒の経歴、そして教育や学習が行われる場の状況を考慮する。










Although Science for All Americans emphasizes what students should learn, it also recognizes that how science is taught is equally important. In planning instruction, effective teachers draw on a growing body of research knowledge about the nature of learning and on craft knowledge about teaching that has stood the test of time. Typically, they consider the special characteristics of the material to be learned, the background of their students, and the conditions under which the teaching and learning are to take place.

This chapter presents―nonsystematically and with no claim of completeness―some principles of learning and teaching that characterize the approach of such teachers. Many of those principles apply to learning and teaching in general, but clearly some are especially important in science, mathematics, and technology education. For convenience, learning and teaching are presented here in separate sections, even though they are closely interrelated.Top button


Learning Is Not Necessarily an Outcome of Teaching

Cognitive research is revealing that even with what is taken to be good instruction, many students, including academically talented ones, understand less than we think they do. With determination, students taking an examination are commonly able to identify what they have been told or what they have read; careful probing, however, often shows that their understanding is limited or distorted, if not altogether wrong. This finding suggests that parsimony is essential in setting out educational goals: Schools should pick the most important concepts and skills to emphasize so that they can concentrate on the quality of understanding rather than on the quantity of information presented.

What Students Learn Is Influenced by Their Existing Ideas

People have to construct their own meaning regardless of how clearly teachers or books tell them things. Mostly, a person does this by connecting new information and concepts to what he or she already believes. Concepts―the essential units of human thought―that do not have multiple links with how a student thinks about the world are not likely to be remembered or useful. Or, if they do remain in memory, they will be tucked away in a drawer labeled, say, "biology course, 1995," and will not be available to affect thoughts about any other aspect of the world. Concepts are learned best when they are encountered in a variety of contexts and expressed in a variety of ways, for that ensures that there are more opportunities for them to become imbedded in a student's knowledge system.

But effective learning often requires more than just making multiple connections of new ideas to old ones; it sometimes requires that people restructure their thinking radically. That is, to incorporate some new idea, learners must change the connections among the things they already know, or even discard some long-held beliefs about the world. The alternatives to the necessary restructuring are to distort the new information to fit their old ideas or to reject the new information entirely. Students come to school with their own ideas, some correct and some not, about almost every topic they are likely to encounter. If their intuition and misconceptions are ignored or dismissed out of hand, their original beliefs are likely to win out in the long run, even though they may give the test answers their teachers want. Mere contradiction is not sufficient; students must be encouraged to develop new views by seeing how such views help them make better sense of the world.

blackshadowblackshadow 2008/03/05 21:55 こんばんは。黒影です。

potasiumchpotasiumch 2008/03/06 23:01 黒影さんはじめまして。

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