2008-03-09 Science For All Americans 第9章 ”数学世界”



Very complex logical arguments can be built from a small number of logical steps, which hang on precise use of the basic terms "if," "and," "or," and "not." For example, medical diagnosis involves branching chains of logic such as "If the patient has disease X or disease Y and also has laboratory result B, but does not have a history of C, then he or she should get treatment D." Such logical problem solving may require expert knowledge of many relationships, access to much data to feed into the relationships, and skill in deducing branching chains of logical operations. Because computers can store and retrieve large numbers of relationships and data and can rapidly perform long series of logical steps, they are being used increasingly to help experts solve complex problems that would otherwise be very difficult or impossible to solve. Not all logical problems, however, can be solved by computers.





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