英字新聞 (読売、毎日、朝日、英字新聞の社説を学習研究 )

2015-01-29

社説:日本人人質殺害 許せない冷血の所業だ

January 26, 2015(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Japanese hostage situation utterly brutal
社説:日本人人質殺害 許せない冷血の所業だ

 ◇後藤さんの無事解放を

A photograph of what is purportedly the body of Haruna Yukawa, a hostage of what is believed to be the extremist Islamic State group, was released on the Internet on Jan. 24. The image is utterly brutal.
 冷血の所業と言うしかない。イスラム過激派「イスラム国」とみられる組織の人質として殺害予告を受けていた湯川遥菜さんの遺体とされる写真が24日、インターネット上で公開された。

The militant group's other Japanese hostage, Kenji Goto, is seen holding the photograph, as a recording of his voice is played, saying, "Abe, you killed Haruna (Yukawa)."
もう一人の人質、後藤健二さんが遺体の写真を手に持って、「安倍(晋三首相)がハルナ(湯川さん)を殺した」との声明を読み上げ、新たな取引を日本政府に提示したのである。

According to the recording, Islamic State has changed the conditions for Goto's release. It is no longer demanding $200 million, but rather the release of a woman facing the death penalty in Jordan.
Islamic State is striking fear into the hearts of the Japanese people with a gory photo of the body and mocking Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's announcement to provide $200 million in non-military aid to Middle East countries fighting the militant group. It is now sitting back and watching Japan's response, waiting for the opportunity to get its "imprisoned sister" back. It is unforgivable. It is barbaric and insidious.
 許せない、という言葉がこみ上げてくる。残酷で狡猾(こうかつ)である。むごたらしい遺体の写真で日本人を恐怖に陥れるとともに、中東で「イスラム国」と戦う国々に2億ドルの非軍事支援を表明した安倍首相をあざ笑い、日本の対応を高みの見物で見守りながら、虎視眈々(たんたん)と仲間(死刑囚)を奪還しようとしているのだ。

The death-row inmate was arrested for her involvement in terrorist bombings in the Jordanian capital of Amman in 2005. Because of the many casualties that resulted from the incident, she is not someone Jordanian authorities are willing to release easily. In addition, Jordan is part of a coalition of countries engaged in military operations against Islamic State, and there have been strong calls for the release of a Jordanian air force pilot who was captured by the Islamic State group when his plane went down during a mission.
 この死刑囚は2005年、ヨルダンの首都アンマンの同時テロに関与して捕まった。多数の死傷者が出た事件だけに簡単には釈放できない人物だろう。それに加えてヨルダンは「イスラム国」と戦う有志国連合の一員であり、作戦中に墜落して「イスラム国」に拘束された空軍兵士の解放を求める声が強い。

To agree to a swap of Goto and the death-row inmate before bringing back a soldier from its own military forces would be an extremely difficult decision for Jordan. At the same time, the Abe administration's promise not to give in to terrorism while placing the utmost priority on human life is a challenging one to keep, and negotiations for Goto's release are expected to present serious challenges.
 自国兵士を差し置いて後藤さんと女性死刑囚の交換解放に応じるのは、ヨルダンにとって苦しい選択だろう。安倍政権も「人命を最優先しつつテロリストには屈しない」という姿勢を貫く難しさがあり、解放交渉は難航必至の情勢だ。

There is also the risk that the kidnappers may change their minds and suddenly cut off hostage negotiations. The actual status of the negotiations is unknown. Under such circumstances, the government must take a realistic approach, making full use of all opportunities and personal networks toward the hostage's release.
 しかも、誘拐組織の気が変われば直ちに交渉が打ち切られる危うさもある。交渉の実態も明らかにされていない。こうした状況下では、政府はあらゆる機会と人脈を生かし、現実的な対応によって人質解放を実現してほしいと言うしかない。

It is also necessary to accept the reality that Japan has become a target of terrorism, and implement all possible measures to prevent something like this from happening again. In the past, those who were taken hostage by Islamic State were primarily citizens of the coalition of countries involved in military action against the militant group, such as the U.S. and Britain. It is unusual for Japan, which has not participated in the military operations, to be targeted.
 他方、テロの標的にされた現実を重く受け止め、再発防止の対策を講じなければならない。従来、「イスラム国」による人質事件は米英など有志国連合の国民が主な標的だった。軍事作戦に参加していない日本が狙われたのは異例である。

There has been a long-standing notion that Japan's ties with Arab countries are positive, making Japanese nationals unlikely targets of kidnappings and terrorism. There have been exceptions, such as the 1991 murder of University of Tsukuba professor Hitoshi Igarashi -- the Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie's novel, "The Satanic Verses" -- after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran accused the book of blasphemy and issued a fatwa against all those involved in its publication. For the most part, however, there was little tension between Japan and the Muslim world.
 昔から日本とアラブ諸国は関係が良好とのイメージがあり、日本人は誘拐やテロの対象になりにくいとされていた。1991年、イランのホメイニ師が作者らに死刑宣告を出した小説「悪魔の詩」の訳者、五十嵐一(ひとし)・筑波大助教授が殺された例はあるにせよ、概してイスラム教と日本の摩擦は生じにくかった。

However, as new generations came to power and Japan's image as an ally began to blur, especially since the 2000s, terrorist organizations stopped giving special consideration to Japan. Osama bin Laden, who orchestrated the 2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S., kept asking why Japan supported the U.S., after the latter had dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Now, al-Qaida considers Japan a part of the "crusade" led by the U.S. and Europe.
 ただ、世代交代が進む中で日本のイメージがぼやけ、特に2000年代に入ると、テロ組織が必ずしも日本人を特別扱いしなくなった節もある。01年の米同時多発テロを実行したテロ組織アルカイダの故ウサマ・ビンラディン容疑者は、日本はなぜ広島・長崎に原爆を落とした米国を支持するのかと問い続けた。アルカイダは日本を米欧と共闘する「十字軍」の一員とみなしている。
   
Among terrorist acts perpetrated by al-Qaida-related groups against Japanese nationals are the 2004 kidnapping and murder of a tourist in demanding the withdrawal of Japan's Self-Defense Forces from Samawah, Iraq, and the 2013 capture and killing of 10 workers at a natural gas plant in Algeria. Regardless, al-Qaida appears to have maintained a relatively restrained approach toward Japan.
 アルカイダ系のテロとしては、04年にイラク・サマワからの自衛隊撤収を求めて日本人旅行者を誘拐、殺害した事件、13年にアルジェリアの天然ガス関連施設が襲われ、日本人10人が犠牲になった事件などが思い浮かぶが、それでもアルカイダは日本に対して、まだ抑制的な態度を保ってきたように思える。

 ◇平和的な中東外交貫け

Meanwhile, it is obvious that the Islamic State, which broke off from al-Qaida, is ruthless even toward Japanese nationals. We no longer live in a time when we can feel safe, just because we are Japanese. As the many existing terrorist organizations compete against each other in their radicalism and ability to shock, Japan has become a target of terrorism on par with the U.S. and European countries. It is important to consider, also, the possibility that being a peaceful country may make Japan even more vulnerable to attacks.
 これに対し、アルカイダから離反した「イスラム国」が日本人であろうと容赦しないのは明らかだ。昔のように日本人は安全と思える時代ではない。林立するテロ組織がテロの過激さと衝撃度を競う今日、日本は既に欧米に匹敵するテロの標的であり、平和路線を志向する国だけに狙われやすいかもしれない、と考えてみる必要もありそうだ。

That does not, however, mean that Japan should change its stance. The extremists are the ones who are misinformed. Japan has long faced up to various Middle East issues, including Arab-Israeli conflicts, with an impartial attitude on an issue-by-issue basis. The capacity to take a peaceful, fair and impartial approach to problems is Japan's greatest asset. We must not lose our footing in face of a hostage's murder, and instead embrace what we have cultivated over the years.
 かといって日本の姿勢を変える必要はない。勝手に誤解しているのは過激派の方だ。日本は長年にわたるアラブ・イスラエル紛争も含めて中東の諸問題に是々非々で臨んできた。平和的で「公平、公正」な対応を取れることこそ日本の無形の財産だ。人質殺害に殊更浮足立つことなく、長い歳月をかけて培ってきたものを大事にしなければならない。

Soon after the shootings at the Paris offices of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, French President Francois Hollande declared that the attack had nothing to do with Islam. He likely feared that the actions of several terrorists would spawn prejudice and hatred toward the 1.6 billion Muslims around the world, and lead to serious divisions in society.
 パリで新聞社襲撃事件が起きた時、オランド仏大統領は「事件はイスラム教とは関係がない」と早々と宣言した。数人のテロリストの行為が世界16億人のイスラム教徒への偏見や憎しみを生み、社会の分断につながることを恐れたのだろう。

In the Japanese hostage case, as with the Paris attacks, we must think seriously about the reality that a barbaric organization is proliferating in the name of Islam and about the U.S.'s responsibility for the current state of affairs.
 今回の事件にも同じことが言えるが、イスラムに名を借りた野蛮な組織が拡散している現実をどうするか、米国の責任も含めて真剣に考える必要がある。

As the administration of President George W. Bush sank further and further into a quagmire in Afghanistan and Iraq, terrorist organizations spread from the Middle East to the African continent.
ブッシュ政権がアフガニスタン、イラクで泥沼にはまり込む中、テロ組織は中東からアフリカなどに拡散した。

Hoping to close the curtains on the two wars, the Obama administration is cautious about its involvement in various Middle East issues, and has declared that the U.S. is no longer the policeman of the world.
二つの戦争の幕引きを優先するオバマ政権は中東の諸問題に及び腰で、「米国は世界の警察官ではない」と明言した。

This approach has had militants reacting with glee, and has most certainly been a major factor in the Islamic State group's expansion.
こうした姿勢が過激派をほくそ笑ませ、「イスラム国」が膨張する大きな要因となったのは確かだろう。

It is time the world learned from the mistakes of the "war against terrorism" since the Bush administration, and put its wisest minds together to come up with ways to prevent terrorism.
 ブッシュ政権以来の「テロとの戦争」の反省を踏まえつつ、世界中がテロ防止に知恵を絞る時だ。

But first, we must secure Goto's release.
まずは後藤さんを確実に解放したい。

毎日新聞 2015年01月26日 02時30分

2015-01-28

年金給付水準 非正規や将来世代の改善図れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Pension benefit reform must consider non-regular workers, future generations
年金給付水準 非正規や将来世代の改善図れ

Reform must be expedited to minimize declines in pension benefit levels expected in the future, with the aim of enhancing the sustainability of the nation’s social security system.
 制度の持続可能性を高め、将来の年金水準の低下を緩和するため、改革を急がねばならない。

An advisory council of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has worked out a report explaining specifics concerning the government-envisaged pension system reform.
 厚生労働省の審議会が年金制度改革の具体的内容を示した報告書をまとめた。

The report centers on steps to adjust benefit levels, the future effects of which were confirmed in pension finance studies the government announced in June last year, including measures to beef up arrangements to rein in pension benefit payments.
 給付抑制を図る仕組みの強化など、昨年6月に公表された年金財政検証で将来の給付水準改善の効果が確認されたものが中心だ。

To ensure the stability of the finances of the government-run pension system, what is referred to as “automatic adjustment of benefits based on macroeconomic indexation” has been introduced to the current social security system for the purpose of lowering benefit levels automatically in accordance with the rates of declines in the birthrate and increases in the number of the elderly. This is aimed at curbing benefit payments by making increases in pension benefits fall below rises in such yardsticks as per-capita wage growth and price rises.
 現行制度は、年金財政の安定化のため、少子高齢化の進み具合に応じて自動的に給付水準を引き下げる「マクロ経済スライド」を導入している。賃金や物価の上昇分より年金の増額を小幅にとどめ、給付を抑制する仕組みだ。

The problem is that the implementation of this mechanism has been limited at a time of deflation, in which prices and wages decline, and when their growth rates are significantly low. The limitations were aimed at protecting the living conditions of the elderly, but they have resulted in delays in curbing benefit payments.
 問題は、物価や賃金が下がるデフレや上昇率が低い際の実施が制限されている点だ。高齢者の生活に配慮したものだが、結果として、給付抑制の遅れを招いた。

If the current high average pension benefits for the elderly are left unchanged, funds for financing pension payments for the future generations are bound to shrink, a situation that would make it inevitable to slash benefit levels. The current benefit payment system should be reviewed for thorough implementation of the indexation formula.
 今の高齢者への給付が高止まりしたままでは、将来世代の年金財源が減り、給付水準が低下する。経済動向にかかわらず、完全実施するよう見直すべきである。

The latest report rightly pointed out the need for “best possible efforts to prevent the indexation formula from being postponed” in order to curb benefit payments. This will likely bring adverse reactions from the elderly, while some in the ruling camp are wary of cutting back on the benefits, but the task of reviewing the benefit payment system cannot be left unaddressed if pension funds for future generations are to be secured.
 報告書が、給付抑制について「極力先送りされない工夫」を求めたのは、もっともだ。高齢者の反発が予想され、与党内に慎重論もあるが、将来世代の年金を守るためには、避けて通れない。

Bigger burden, fatter benefits

The report has also noted the need to encourage non-regular employees to seek coverage by the kosei nenkin company workers’ pension plan.
 報告書は非正規労働者の厚生年金加入を進める方針も示した。

The current kosei nenkin plan has been focusing on regular employees. Part-timers and other non-regular employees have mostly been excluded from corporate pension plan coverage. Non-regular employees qualify to receive only a basic pension in their old age, which is around a maximum of \60,000 per month. With non-regular workers continuing to increase, there are fears the number of low-benefit people will swell in the future.
 現行の厚生年金は、正社員が中心だ。パートなどの多くが除外され、老後は満額でも月6万円程度の基礎年金しかもらえない。非正規労働者の増加に伴い、将来、低年金者が続出する恐れがある。

Effective from October 2016, coverage by kosei nenkin is to be expanded to include “employees working 20 hours or more a week” from the current “30 hours or more.” Because of opposition from the distribution industry sector, in which many non-regular workers are employed, the number of people to be covered under the new requirements is estimated at no more than 250,000, as a number of conditions such as non-regular workers’ monthly income and the scale of the company they work for have been included in eligibility.
 2016年10月から、対象拡大のため、加入基準が「労働時間が週30時間以上」から「週20時間以上」に緩和される。だが、パートの多い流通業界などの反対で、月収や企業規模に条件がつき、新たな加入者は25万人に過ぎない。

Boosting pension benefits for non-regular workers is urgently needed, and expansion of coverage for the kosei nenkin plan is indispensable. This task must be carried forward steadily while paying due attention to business conditions of small and medium-size businesses.
 非正規労働者の年金の充実は急務である。さらなる対象拡大が欠かせない。中小企業の経営に配慮しつつ、着実に進めるべきだ。

Regarding the duration of basic pension premium payments, the report said the idea of extending the current payment period of 40 years to 45 years for full pension qualification should be considered “a matter of course” in light of rises in life expectancy. The higher the burden of premium payments, the larger the pension benefits.
 基礎年金の保険料納付期間については、寿命の延びに対応し、今の40年間から45年間に延長することが「自然の流れ」とした。負担が増える分、年金額も増える。

In a hyper-aging society, it is imperative that an increasing number of people work as long as possible to prop up society, the national economy and the social security system. Doing so, they will be able to help improve pension benefits for future generations.
 超高齢社会では、より多くの人が、できるだけ長く働き、社会・経済や社会保障制度の支え手となることが重要だ。将来世代の給付水準の改善にも役立つ。

The problem, however, is how to secure funding sources: Half of basic pension benefits are funded by tax revenues. Discussions should therefore be conducted about not only the need to implement the hike in the consumption tax rate to 10 percent without fail, but also the need to increase the burden further even after the consumption tax hike.
 問題は財源である。基礎年金の半分は税金で賄われる。消費税率10%への引き上げの確実な実施にとどまらず、その先の負担増も見据えた議論が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 25, 2015)

2015-01-20

インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Prevent flu by washing hands frequently, avoiding crowded places
インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

Influenza is raging through the nation.
 インフルエンザが猛威を振るっている。

The average number of flu patients at regularly surveyed medical institutions rose to 33.28 in the reporting week from Jan. 5 to Jan. 11, topping the alert level of 30 per institute. The average number exceeded the alert level three weeks earlier than last winter.
 今月5〜11日の患者数は、1医療機関当たりの平均で33・28人に上り、警報レベルの30人を超えた。昨季より3週間早い。

The epidemic may spread further and the number of flu patients may exceed that of a regular year. We should take thorough preventive measures.
 流行はさらに拡大し、患者数が例年より多くなる可能性がある。予防を徹底したい。

A flu virus is transmitted from person to person by droplets from coughing or sneezing. It multiplies in the throat and the lungs, and flu symptoms appear following a latency period of about two days. Unlike a common cold, a flu patient may abruptly run a high fever of over 38 C and suffer such symptoms as a headache and overall muscle pain.
 インフルエンザは、咳せきやくしゃみなどの飛沫ひまつを介して感染する。喉や肺でウイルスが増え、2日程度の潜伏期間の後に発症する。一般の風邪と異なり、急に38度以上の高熱を発し、頭痛、全身の筋肉痛といった症状が表れる。

Day-to-day precautions are most important in warding off infection.
 感染予防には、日頃の心がけが何より重要だ。

These steps include avoiding crowded places and frequent hand-washing. We can also build up our resistance by getting enough sleep and paying attention to what we eat. A humidifier will also help us keep the mucus in our respiratory tract moist, which helps maintain our defenses.
 人混みを避け、こまめに手を洗う。睡眠や食事に気を付けて、抵抗力を高める。加湿器も、気道の粘膜の湿気を保ち、防御機能を維持するのに役立つ。

Immunization will prevent the flu from becoming severe, the effect lasting about half a year. However, it cannot completely prevent a person from becoming infected and developing flu symptoms. We must not be overconfident.
 予防接種は重症化を防ぎ、効果が半年程度続くが、感染や発症を完全に抑えることはできない。過信は禁物である。

Of the viruses detected in the patients this season, most were the type-A Hong Kong strain (H3N2). So far no virus has been found in this strain that would be resistant to an anti-influenza drug.
 今季検出されたウイルスのほとんどが、A香港型(H3N2型)だ。この型では、抗インフルエンザ薬が効かない耐性ウイルスは、今のところ見つかっていない。

It is best to see a doctor immediately after experiencing such symptoms as chills. By taking prescribed drugs and getting a lot of rest, flu patients usually get well within a few days.
 悪寒などの症状が出たら、早めの受診が望ましい。薬を服用し、休養に努めれば、多くの場合、数日で回復する。

Elderly people and those with chronic diseases particularly need to take precautions against the flu.
 特に用心せねばならないのは、高齢者や持病のある人だ。

Kids need special attention

The type-A Hong Kong strain has a relatively high probability of causing patients to also develop pneumonia through a bacterial infection. Special attention is also needed so that children do not develop brain disorders from this type of flu.
H3N2型は、細菌感染による肺炎を併発するリスクが比較的高い。子どもの脳症にも要注意である。

If a child shows signs of gasping or convulsions, it is vital to take them to the hospital immediately.
 呼吸が苦しそうになったり、痙攣けいれんが起きたりしたら、すぐに病院に連れて行くことが大切だ。

Pneumococcal vaccine is said to be effective in preventing pneumonia. Since last year, the government has been subsidizing part of the vaccination expenses for those aged 65 or older.
 肺炎予防には、肺炎球菌ワクチンが有効とされる。政府は、65歳以上を対象に、昨年から接種費用の一部を助成している。

As many of the people who died as a result of the flu were found to have also developed pneumonia, elderly people should be encouraged to get vaccinated.
インフルエンザが引き金となった死亡例の多くは、肺炎を併発しているだけに、高齢者の接種を促したい。

Group infections at such places as nursing care facilities have occurred this season, too, resulting in the deaths of some elderly people. They are believed to have been infected with the flu by visitors or employees at the facilities. These facilities may need to take such measures as limiting the number of visitors during an epidemic period.
 今季も介護施設などで集団感染が発生し、高齢者が死亡している。来訪者や職員からの感染が考えられる。施設側には、流行期に見舞客を制限するといった対応が求められるだろう。

Since early this year, there has been a marked increase in the number of those flu patients in their 20s to 40s, people in the prime of their working life. In the case of adult patients, they are believed to emit the virus for about five days after their symptoms appear, making it highly advisable for them to refrain from going out during this period.
 年明けから、働き盛りの20〜40歳代の患者の増加が目立つ。大人の場合、発症から5日間程度はウイルスを排出しているため、外出を控える必要がある。

Even if people may have to go out to work, they must not force themselves to do so. Such actions are likely to spread the infection.
 仕事があるからといって、無理に出勤してはいけない。感染を広げてしまう恐れがある。

For flu patients to get a good rest at home, it is vital for workplaces to show their understanding of employees’ physical conditions.
 患者が十分に休むためには、職場の理解が欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 19, 2015)

2015-01-17

社説:表現すること 他者を尊重する心も

January 16, 2015(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Respect for others is important in freedom of expression
社説:表現すること 他者を尊重する心も

A deadly terrorist attack on the French weekly Charlie Hebdo has sparked controversy over whether its publication of caricatures of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad falls within the bounds of freedom of expression or constitutes profanation. One cannot help but wonder whether these two matters are irreconcilable. It is necessary to pursue a society in which people with different values, such as religions, can coexist while respecting freedom of expression.
 フランスの週刊紙「シャルリーエブド」への襲撃事件をきっかけに、表現の自由か宗教への冒とくか、という議論が起きている。だが、この二つは果たして、相いれぬものだろうか。表現の自由を守りつつ、宗教の違いなど価値観を異にする者が共存できる社会のありようを模索することこそ、必要なはずだ。

Charlie Hebdo has continued to publish caricatures of the prophet despite criticism that such satires are provocative. The magazine carried a caricature of the prophet in its latest issue published after the attack. Some Western media ran a photo of the caricature to express their support for Charlie Hebdo while others chose not to publish it in view of religious sensibilities. Japanese newspapers were split over their response, with some of them including the Mainichi Shimbun choosing not to publish a photo of the caricature and others running such an image.
 シャルリー紙はこれまで、挑発的と批判されながらも、イスラム教の預言者ムハンマドの風刺画の掲載を続けてきた。事件後の最新号にも、ムハンマドの風刺画を掲載した。欧米では連帯の表明としてこれを転載したメディアもあれば、宗教感情を害するとして不掲載のメディアもあった。日本の全国紙も、毎日新聞を含む掲載見送りの新聞と、掲載した新聞とに対応が分かれた。

One caricaturist within Charlie Hebdo said journalism should not give in to violence saying, "There are no restrictions on or conditions for freedom of expression." The idea is based on a value of respecting freedom of expression that French people have maintained since the French Revolution, and is likely to be supported by many.
 それぞれに、表現の自由をめぐる思いがある。シャルリー紙の風刺画家の一人は「表現の自由は条件や制限がついたものではない」として、暴力には屈しない姿勢を強調した。それは、フランス革命以来、表現の自由を何より大切にするフランスの文化や価値観に基づくものであり、理解する人もいるだろう。

We are of the view that freedom of speech is a principle that forms the basis of democracy and must be respected to the maximum extent. Nobody should be allowed to resort to violence to criticize or protest against free speech. What should be criticized in the latest incident is extremism in which terrorists attempted to suppress freedom of expression by violence.
 私たちも、言論や表現の自由は民主主義の根幹をなす大事な理念であって、最大限尊重されなければならないと考える。言論への反発や抗議は、暴力という手段で行うべきではない。ましてや、他者を殺す権利は誰にもない。今回の事件で非難されるのは、暴力で表現を圧殺しようとした過激思想の方である。

However, denouncing violence in the press and how to exercise freedom of expression should be considered separately. There were many participants in an anti-terror demonstration march in Paris who apparently thought that repeatedly making fun of a certain religion is excessive while admitting that freedom of expression must be respected. It is worrisome that Charlie Hebdo continues to publish caricatures, which could be taken as provocation, while attention is focused on how to ensure Europe and Islamic society can peacefully coexist. This could trigger further clashes.
 ただ、言論への暴力に反対することと、表現の自由のあり方は、分けて考えるべきではないか。反テロ行進に参加した人の中には、表現の自由は大切だが宗教への度重なるからかいは行きすぎだ、と受け止める人も少なくなかっただろう。欧州とイスラム社会の共存が問われる中、あえて挑発ととられかねない風刺画の掲載を続けることが、新たな衝突につながることを危惧する。

Freedom of expression should be protected to achieve a society in which diverse values are respected. To that end, it is important for members of society to respect not only their own values but also other people's values. If expressions that offend and discriminate against others were to be permitted without limits, society could lose diversity and tolerance, and even allow those in power to intervene in the press.
 表現の自由は、多様な価値観を尊重しあう社会のためにこそ、守られるべきものであるはずだ。それには自分の価値観と同様に、他者の価値観も尊重することが大切である。他者の心情を傷つけ、差別する表現が無制限に許されるようになっては、社会はむしろ、多様さと寛容さを失い、場合によっては表現への権力の介入を招くことにもなりかねない。

In Japan, hate speech that fuels discrimination against and rejects certain ethnic groups has emerged as a serious social problem. Repeating speech that insults and defames other people is not worthy of being called freedom of speech. It is important to keep in mind that expression requires moderation and conscience and that those who exercise their freedom of speech must take responsibility for what they say.
 日本でも、特定の民族差別をあおり、排斥するヘイトスピーチ(憎悪表現)の問題がある。他者への配慮を欠き、侮辱・中傷にあたる言動を繰り返すことは、表現の自由の名に値しない。表現には、節度や良識の裏付け、行使する側の責任も伴うことを、改めて自覚したい。

毎日新聞 2015年01月16日 02時40分

2015-01-16

介護報酬削減 職員の待遇改善と両立させよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Balance nursing care fee changes with better conditions for workers
介護報酬削減 職員の待遇改善と両立させよ

To maintain the nation’s social security system in a rapidly aging society, it is vital to curb ever-soaring nursing care expenses.
 超高齢社会で社会保障制度を維持するには、膨張する介護費の伸びの抑制が欠かせない。

The government has decided to cut nursing care service fees under public nursing care insurance by 2.27 percent overall, starting in fiscal 2015. The move is the first downward revision in fees in nine years and the second largest cut on record following reductions of 2.3 percent in fiscal 2003.
 政府は、介護保険サービスの公定価格である介護報酬を2015年度から全体で2・27%引き下げることを決めた。9年ぶりのマイナス改定だ。過去最大だった03年度の2・3%に次ぐ下げ幅になる。

Nursing care fees are paid to nursing care providers in compensation for the services provided under the public insurance system.
 介護報酬は、提供したサービスの対価として、介護保険から事業者に支払われる。

The total expenses of the nursing care insurance program, which stood at \3.6 trillion in fiscal 2000, when the system started, reached \10 trillion in fiscal 2014. The expenses are expected to double within the next 10 years.
 スタート時の00年度に3・6兆円だった介護保険の総費用は、14年度には10兆円に達した。今後10年で倍増する見込みだ。

With a 1 percent cut in nursing care fees, total expenses are calculated to be trimmed by \100 billion a year. As the planned hike in the consumption tax rate to 10 percent has been postponed by a year and a half and the task of securing revenue sources for social security programs has consequently been delayed, the government will inevitably cut nursing care fees to curb overall expenditures.
 介護報酬を1%下げれば、総費用が年1000億円減るとされる。消費税率10%への引き上げが先送りされ、社会保障の財源確保が遅れる中、歳出抑制のために報酬引き下げはやむを得まい。

Meanwhile, the planned cutback will not only ease the government’s fiscal burdens, but also reduce insurance premiums paid by insured and service users.
 引き下げにより、財政負担だけでなく、加入者には支払う保険料が軽減されるメリットもある。

The Finance Ministry had originally demanded that nursing care fees be cut by about 4 percent. But should the business conditions of nursing care providers markedly deteriorate, they may have to lower the quality of their services.
 財務省は4%程度の引き下げを求めていた。ただ、事業者の経営が極端に悪化すればサービスの低下を招きかねない。

Serious manpower shortage

The latest revision can be construed as one resulting from the government taking into account both its fiscal condition and the business operations of service providers.
今回の改定率は、財政状況と事業経営の双方に配慮した結果と言えよう。

With regards to better working conditions for nursing care workers, the government will allot extra fees to nursing care benefits for providers that deal with the issue systematically.
 一方、介護職員の待遇改善に関しては、計画的に取り組む事業者への加算を拡充する。

Manpower shortages have reached serious levels at workplaces of nursing care services, primarily stemming from low salaries. The average monthly wage for nursing care workers is \220,000, which is \100,000 less than the average across all industries. How appropriate, then, that the government has set aside extra outlays to raise the monthly average wage for nursing care workers by about \12,000.
 介護現場では人手不足が深刻化している。最大の原因は待遇の低さだ。平均賃金は月22万円で、全産業平均より10万円も少ない。賃金を月1万2000円程度アップできるよう、別枠で費用を確保したのは適切な措置である。

To ensure the extra outlays will be reflected in wage hikes, public administrators must be adamant in making regular inspections.
 加算分が確実に賃金アップに反映されるよう、行政の厳格なチェックが必要だ。

In fiscal 2025, when members of the baby-boomer generation will be 75 or older, projections indicate the need to increase the number of nursing care workers by 1 million. Nursing care providers need to make great strides to improve the working conditions for nursing care workers.
 団塊の世代が75歳以上になる25年度には、介護職員を今より100万人増やす必要があるとの推計もある。事業者には、さらなる処遇改善の努力が求められる。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry will decide on fees by type for nursing care services in the days ahead. The ministry is planning to increase rewards for at-home services supporting those requiring high or moderate levels of nursing care, as well as at-home services that assist elderly citizens with dementia.
 厚生労働省は今後、個別サービスごとの価格を決める。介護の必要性が高い中重度者や認知症高齢者向けの在宅サービスなどを手厚くする方向だ。

Meanwhile, the government will drastically cut service fees for special elderly homes providing round-the-clock nursing care because operators of such facilities are said to have amassed profits averaging \300 million. There are said to be not a few of those operators that have neglected to improve their facilities and working conditions for their employees.
 特別養護老人ホームは、大幅減額になる。平均3億円もの利益を蓄えていることが背景にある。設備や職員の待遇の改善を怠っている施設も少なくない。

Financial conditions differ among service operators. The government would cause more harm than good with these across-the-board cuts in fees if operators that had been striving to improve their services end up in financial hardship.
 経営状況は施設ごとに異なる。報酬の一律カットで、サービス向上に努めてきた施設が経営難に陥っては本末転倒だ。

The ministry needs to work out a framework that accordingly rewards providers offering good services by, for instance, finding ways to enhance the fees paid to them.
 報酬の加算方法を工夫するなど、良質な事業者が報われる仕組みにすることが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 14, 2015)