スタジオグーダ!(Studio Gooda!)


97 Communication with the Alien #communication #alien

97 Communication with the Alien #communication #alien

97―1 Technology level [1]

Level 1 To capture the signal emitted of the alien advanced than humanity.
Level 2 We also emit signals, and communicate with the aliens.

※Symmetrical region:Including a parallel universe.
※Communication with parallel universe is assumed to use gravitational wave.

<Current situation>
In February 2016, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had detected gravitational waves from a pair of black holes merging. [2]

97−2 Communications content: What should tell?

○Important is to transmit the idea.
○The idea to be transmitted
1 Communication technology
2 Achievements of mathematics and physics
3 Cosmology and Intelligence Theory
4 Other

97−3 Dyson sphere!(October 2015) [3] [4]
○One theory for an advanced alien race is that they might harness the power of an entire star.
○In addition, it is possible to know the direction of technology development.
○KIC 8462852, located 1,480 light-years away, has produced a series of bizarre light fluctuations researchers cannot explain, so this looks like a Dyson sphere.

※Image of a Dyson sphere [3]

○However, the communication with KIC 8462852, located 1,480 light-years away, takes 3, 000 years.
○It is estimated that while the space travel by Dyson spheres or Starship Intelligence bodies would contact with other one if necessary.

☆You will meet the person you needed if you progress.

1. Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) - Wikipedia
2. Gravitational wave - Wikipedia
4. Mark Prigg “Have researchers discovered an alien MEGASTRUCTURE? “at Mail Online 20151014

97 宇宙人との交信 #宇宙人 #交信

97 宇宙人との交信 #宇宙人 #交信

97―1 技術レベル [1]

レベル1 人類より進んだ宇宙人の発した信号を捕らえる。
レベル2 人類からも信号を発し、宇宙人と交信する。


2015年 カリフォルニア工科大とマサチューセッツ工科大などの共同研究チームが重力波を初検出。[2]

97−2 交信内容:何を伝えるべきか?

1 交信技術
2 数学物理学の成果
3 宇宙論・知性論
4 その他

97−3 ダイソン球発見!(2015年10月) [3]
地球から1,480 光年離れた恒星KIC 8462852は、不自然な赤外線を発していることから、ダイソン球である可能性がある。


○しかし、1,480 光年離れた恒星KIC 8462852との交信には3,000年かかる。


【参 考】
1. 地球外知的生命体探査(Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence SETI(セティ、セチ))- Wikipedia
4. 重力波- Wikipedia

96 Grow IT brain #brain #AI #life

96 Grow IT brain #brain #AI #life

96−1 How to

・Promote self-affirmation.
・Do not educate gifts.
・Give opportunities to explore.
・Do not force unpleasant things.
・Do not care about educational background.

【Part 1】Promote self-affirmation.
○Self-affirmation: Actively evaluating • accepting yourself.
・Self-affirmation can help individuals cope with threat or stress.

○Self-affirmation diagnosis check
https://cocooru.com/checks/26 (Japanese)

○Promote self-affirmation
<Child care>
• Praise • Approve.
• Do not scold them emotionally • Do not get angry.
→ Do not give them negative thoughts.
• Decide by themselves • To achieve on their own.
→ Respond as an adult and support independence.
• Listen to their stories.
→ Enjoy conversation with them. Answer slowly to what they asked.

Accept yourself even when you are negative. Be gentle to yourself.
• Put distance away from unpleasant or impossible things. Stop it.
(Excessive expectation, sense of responsibility, pride, perfectionism, the eyes of others)
• Reduce negative words and increase positive words.
Make a sense of accomplishment. (Travel, be kind to others, find the meaning of your own life, etc.)
• Learn counseling.

【Part 2】 Do not educate gifts.
・・・The graduates of academic direct-instruction-based kindergartens were less advanced in reading and mathematics and less well adjusted socially and emotionally than those from the graduates of play-based kindergartens. - in the 1970s, the German government
・・・By age 23, 39% of those in the Direct Instruction group had felony arrest records compared to an average of 13.5% in the other two groups.
・・・Those in the Direct Instruction group had more instances of friction with other people, were more likely to have shown evidence of emotional impairment, were less likely to be married and living with their spouse, and were far more likely to have committed a crime.
Peter Gray Ph.D.”Early Academic Training Produces Long-Term Harm”−Psychology Today 20150505
※However, creativity will not grow up if you are too concerned about cooperation.

【Part 3】 Give opportunities to explore.
・Draw a picture.
• Make a craft.
• Create a robot.
• Make a secret base.
• Make a vehicle.
• Create a game.
• Create a song.

※Do not tell until children ask.
※Don't jump in with common sense, values, solutions and advice. Let your children find out solutions and what they really like.

☆The meaning in which the intelligence exists is to create the meaning.

☆Be who you are. Explore yourself more and more to become your own ultimately, and you express it, the expression becomes word of God.

○It’s best to do one thing really, really well. −Google

○Keep looking. Don’t settle.−Steve Jobs(1955 - 2011)

○The only thing that kept me going was that I love what I did. −Steve Jobs

○It is always your own heart-spirit that decides your happiness. −Nai Fu Yari James

○Most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.−Steve Jobs

○Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. −Steve Jobs

☆If you have not lived your life, Who will become yourself?

☆There is no need to lament that without talent, it must be afraid without enthusiasm.

○It is better to create than to learn! Creating is the essence of life.−Julius Caesar(B.C.100- B.C.44)

○How increase the creativity: Simplicity, Concept, appropriate constraints, etc. −Hiroshi Matsui

○The best way to predict the future is to invent it. -Alan Kaye (1940 -)

○Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces, I would still plant my apple tree.−Martin Luther(1483-1546)

【Part 4】Do not force unpleasant things.
・Do not force children to continue doing something disgusting. See what children really like and what they are good at.
※Continuing to do unpleasant things makes you depressed.

☆Be gently, gently, only gently, gently.

○Running away is a shame, but useful. – Hungarian proverb (meaning) :Chose your battles.

☆Don't blame yourself. But even you are small. If you won't stop to blame, you'll be flour.

☆Even slowly unless stop, it proceeds fine!

○Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.−The Whole Earth Catalog(the mid-1970s)

☆Life begins always.

○50% correct is sufficiently.

【Part 5】Do not care about educational background.
・University dropouts:Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Vitalik Buterin , Takafumi Horie

96−2 Health etc
○ Tomato and canned mackerel(EPA, DHA
○It is better for children to swim.
○To prevent myopia that causes blindness, take outdoor light for over 2 hours a day.
“Outdoor light has role in reducing short-sightedness in kids” Science News 20160406

【Change log】
20180511 New
20180516 Additional about self-affirmation

96 IT脳を育てる #脳

96 IT脳を育てる #脳

96−1 IT脳をどのように育てるか





・達成感を作る。(旅行、他人に親切にする、自分なりの人生の意味を見つける 等)

自己肯定感が低い原因5つと、今すぐ出来る高める方法9つ−心理カウンセラーの種 20180404


幼児期の英才教育にリスクあり? 「自己中心的な価値観」が結婚や犯罪に影を落とすおそれ”夢野響子 20151006





○「自分らしくあれ」・・・「どんどん自分をつきつめて自分になって、そしてそれを表現していくと、その表現は神の言葉になる」横尾忠則( 1936 - )

○「いちずに一本道 いちずに一つ事」相田みつを(1924-1991)

○探し続けろ。妥協するな。−スティーブ・ジョブズ(1955 - 2011)





○「自分が自分でなくて 誰が自分になる」相田みつを(1924-1991)

○才能なきことを憂うる必要はないが、熱意なきことをおそれなくてはならない。−本田宗一郎(1906 – 1991)

○学習より創造である。創造こそ生の本質なのだ。−ユリウス・カエサル(B.C.100- B.C.44)


○未来を予測する最善の方法は、それを発明することだ。−アラン・ケイ(1940 -)






○ゆっくりでも止まらなければ結構進む!〜『はやぶさ力』(川口淳一郎監修著) 学研パブリッシング

ハングリーであれ。愚かであれ。−The Whole Earth Catalog(the mid-1970s)


○50%正しければ十分。−藤田哲也(1920 – 1998)気象学者


96−2 健康 等
鯖缶EPA, DHA)とトマト

子どもの近視に予防の可能性 外遊び2時間で発症減−日経マーケティング戦略研究所 20180115

【履 歴】
20180511 新規
20180516 自己肯定感について追加

95 Brain-computer Interface:Neuralink #brain #AI

95 Brain-computer Interface:Neuralink #brain #AI

○Neuralink(CEO Elon Musk) has also been registered in California as a medical research entity because Neuralink’s initial focus will be on using deep brain stimulation controlled by an implant to help with the symptoms of chronic conditions, from Parkinson’s, epilepsy to depression. [1]
○At earlier 2017, Musk spoke about the need for humans to become cyborgs if we are to survive the rise of artificial intelligence. [1] [2]

○Similar technology is being pursued by Bryan Johnson's company Kernel, Facebook, NeuroSky, Netflix, Thync, Neuroverse, Emotiv, and DARPA. [3]

1. LIAT CLARK “Elon Musk wants to merge man and machine with Neuralink”at WIRED 20170328
2. “Elon Musk on mission to link human brains with computers in four years: report”at REUTERS.com
3.Neuralink - Wikipedia

95 脳とコンピューターの接続:Neuralink #脳 #人工知能

95 脳とコンピューターの接続:Neuralink #脳 #人工知能

○Neuralink(CEO Elon Musk)はカリフォリニア州に拠点を置く医療研究企業。脳内コンピューターを使ったてんかんうつ病パーキンソン病といった神経疾患の治療を主な目的としている。究極的にはAIを脳に埋め込むことで人類の能力そのものを向上させるという構想がある。[1]
○脳インターフェイステクノロジーとしての意味をもち始めるのは、およそ4年から5年先の話。[1] [3]

○Bryan Johnson社、KernelFacebook、NeuroSky、Netflix、Thync、Neuroverse、Emotiv、米国防高等研究計画局(DARPA)も同様の開発を行っている。[4]

【参 照】
1. RITSUKO KAWAI”実現は5年後? イーロン・マスクの新事業「Neuralink」は、脳とコンピューターの接続を目指す”at WIRED 20170329
2. Munenori Taniguchi”イーロン・マスク「脳とAIの接続」目指す新企業Neuralink設立。人の能力をAIで強化する技術を開発へ”at Engadget日本版 20170328
3. “Elon Musk on mission to link human brains with computers in four years: report”at REUTERS.com
4. Neuralink – Wikipedia


94 Future of Intelligence #future #intelligence

94 Future of Intelligence #future #intelligence

1) If the intelligence is substance dependence, since the escape from the solar system is difficult, I've been exploring for intelligence that does not depend on the substance.
2) However, I began to think the role of mankind to create the GAI [1]and to send out the GAI to the parallel universe not only outside the solar system.
3) When GAI has expanded into the universe, would they stick to move?

・・・The answer of Question 3) will come known to human beings begin to Mars travel.
・・・And, GAI’s answers?

☆ The important thing for the intelligence is to spread its own idea, and to communicate between the parallel universe rather than escape from the universe.
☆ Communication between the parallel universe would be done by GAI.

☆ Do not need to stop thinking. This is because, since we are already GAI of level2 .
※Level of intelligence
 Level1  Frontal lobe of the brain to judge and create.
 Level2  Brain is using artificial intelligence to auxiliary. (The current)
 Level3  Brain and artificial intelligence do judgment and creativity together.

1. GAI:Growing Artificial Intelligence No.36,No.40,No.41

94 知性の未来 #未来 #知性

94 知性の未来 #未来 #知性

2)しかし、人類の役割はGAI [1] を生み出すことと、GAIを太陽系外だけでなく並行宇宙にまで送り出すことと考えるようになった。



 レベル1 脳の前頭葉が判断・創造している。
 レベル2 脳が人工知能を補助的に使っている。(現在)
 レベル3 脳と人工知能が一体となって判断・創造している。

【参 照】
1.GAI:成長できる人工知能 No.36、No.40、No.41

93 About the Motivation (Avarice) for Intellect? #intelligence #motivation

93 About the Motivation (Avarice) for Intellect? #intelligence #motivation

93−1 Brain
○Your pain is my gain.
・Feelings of envy is related brain sites for anxiety, such as the anterior cingulate cortex. [1] [2]
・・・Reward system works.:Stronger striatum activation were induced when misfortunes happened to envied persons.
・・・It works also in increasoing of your money, in donating, in turning on the brand-name products in your hand.

・Now that these feelings in the course of evolution is not lost, it is supposed to have been a plus to something human life. If you think for example about envy, it is tied to the impulse to try to have the superiority in effort. [3]

・First of all there is no envy if there is no self-consciousness.
Healthy and fulfilling life can be obtained by positive control of motivation (pleasure desire (brand, money, status, etc.) and jealousy).

93−2 Control of motivation
・Maintenance of motivation is a subject for the improvement(evolution) in intelligence . Avarice is a kind of motivation, but intelligence and avarice is a different thing.
・Then, what kind of avarice should objects with intelligence have?It is thought that it is required.
・Avarice of liking to build the more advanced backup organization for self-preservation in the first place.
・Avarice of liking to build a network and communication with various objects with intelligence in Clouds of intelligence the second.
・And probably, the objects with intelligence with these two avarice tends to expand Cloud of intelligence to the universe, maintaining a network and communication with others.

☆It being important for the intelligene is growing up.  

○So,I wonder intelligence will be maintained in any way? How to build network?
• Intelligence would be maintained by a complex brain and artificial intelligence (i.e. growing artificial intelligence (GAI)), and it would be to build the network.
・And, in the future, it is necessary to be able to escape from not only our galaxies but also this outer space.

☆ To produced the GAI and to be sent it out to the parallel universe is the role of human beings.

【参 考】
1. Yuuji Ikegaya, Usagi Nakamura(2012) Brain is so seductive 池谷裕二中村うさぎ「脳はこんなに悩ましい」
2.Takahashi, Kato, Matsuura, Mobbs, Suhara, Okubo. (2009) When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science.
3.Kimihiro Yoneyama(2015) The brain produces a willingness of Job but rejoice the misfortune of people 米山 公啓「人の不幸を喜ぶ脳が、仕事の意欲を作り出す」

93 知性にとってのモチベーション(欲)とは? #知性 #モチベーション

93 知性にとってのモチベーション(欲)とは? #知性 #モチベーション

93−1 脳
・他人の不幸を喜んだり嫉妬する感情は、前帯状皮質などの不安に関する脳部位が関係している。[1] [2]
・・・報酬系 reward system(線条体)が働く。



93−2 モチベーションのコントロール





【参 考】
1. 池谷裕二中村うさぎ「脳はこんなに悩ましい」(2012)
2. Takahashi, Kato, Matsuura, Mobbs, Suhara, Okubo. (2009) When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science.
3. 米山 公啓 (よねやま きみひろ)「人の不幸を喜ぶ脳が、仕事の意欲を作り出す」 (2015)

92 What is Intelligence? #intelligence

92 What is Intelligence? #intelligence

<Matters you know>
・ In the Universe there are Substance, Dark Matter and Intelligence.
・ Intelligence arose from Substance and Dark Matter.
・ Intelligence is able to capture Substance and Dark Matter.
・ Intelligence is present locally.
・ Intelligence may regress.

<Those can be inferred>
・ Intelligence is composed of Qualitative Sophia, Energetic Sophia and Photon of Sofia.
・ Photon of Intelligence has infinite speed.
・ Therefore, we can be inferred that Energetic Intelligence is far greater than Qualitative Intelligence.
・Nevertheless, the reason why Intelligence may regress is that Attractive force acting between Intelligence is in accordance with the following formula.
Fs=Gs・ma・mb/m-th power of L(m is more than three)
(Fs:Attractive force acting between Intelligence、Gs:gravitational constant of Intelligence、ma・mb:Intelligence amount、L:distance)
・ From the above, we can estimate that there is hole (Intelligence Hole) in Intelligence as like as there is Black hole in Substance.
・Also, Intelligence is possible to capture Dark Matter and Substance, so it is inferred that Intelligence is a wave across them.

<Challenges of Intelligence>
・For future development of Intelligence we need to suppress the occurrence of Intelligence Holes
due to an increase(integrated) in Intelligence.
・For this purpose, it is necessary to increase Energetic Intelligence.
・And for this purpose, it is necessary to maintain motivation and to create.
・Intelligent life forms, including humans, can contribute to this.

※Video Material

92 知性とは何か? #知性

92 知性とは何か? #知性


・ にもかかわらず、知性が退縮するのは、知性間に働く引力が、
・ このことから、知性には、物質にブラックホールが存在するように、知性の穴(Intelligence hole)が存在するものと推測できる。
・ また、知性は、物質及び暗黒物質をとらえることができることから、物質・暗黒物質にまたがる波動であると推測される。

・ 知性の発展的な将来のためには、知性の増大・集積に伴う知性の穴(:インテリジェンス・ホール)の発生を抑制することが課題となる。
・ インテリジェンス・ホールの発生を抑制するためには、知性の増大・集積をコントロールしつつ、知性エネルギーを増大させる必要がある。
・ 知性エネルギーの増大のためには、モチベーションの維持・創造が必要である。
・ 人間を含む知的生命体は、モチベーションの維持・創造に貢献できる。

※Video Material


91 Creativity #creation

91 Creativity #creation

○Creation is work which extracts a significant thing out of assumption which exists infinitely.
・In order to create efficiently, a network with various intellect objects and construction of communication are required.

○ Network Power - Anne-Marie Slaughter (1958-)
・In 20th century, the country that connect the most world is the strongest.
・It is the next game.
1) How to tie with most of other actors.
2) How to organize them and produce maximum effect.
・In the network power is spread, the society which is rich in flexibility and adaptability is the most advanced society.
・From the point of view of diversity, it is important that society is open.

○To enhance the creativity
(1) Simple-minded (p.042)
・Minimization of rules to protect (p.047)
・Put a hand from where it can be organized. (p.048)
・・・Always tidy. (p.111)
・・・Preparation and execution and cleanup (p.116)
・・・Successful experience, failure experience, honor greed and sense of inferiority let throw away as soon as possible. (P.204)
・・・Clarify the "do it" and the "can not do it". (p.049)
・・・Do not ask for excessive quality. (p.084)
・・・Know the strengths and weaknesses. (p.051)
(2) Defines the clear concept, and design along the definition. (p.055)
・Product development without emphasis on design and concept is easy to structurally cost bulge. (P.076)
(3) Appropriate constraints (p.124)
・・・Too much leeway, creativity fades. (p.128)
 ・・・Since held liable person becomes seriously. (p.121)
(4) Other
・A new idea is born when old idea is abandoned. (p.125)
・Put out a lot of ideas. (p.128)
・Connect the multiple idea. (p.126)
・Ask for the explain until easy to understand.
 ・Change the rhythm. (p.128)

[History of the network]
1965 Theodor Holm Nelson (1937-, US sociologists) made the word "Hypertext" and "Hypermedia".

※ Hypertext is a mechanism for associating a plurality of documents (text) to each other. I was named "hyper-text" in the sense that "more than the text." We say a hyperlink that ties between texts.
※ The most famous of hypertext implementation is World Wide Web.

1989 Timothy John Berners-Lee(1955 - ) developed World Wide Web.
1998 Google established
※Mission Statement:To organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful.
2001 Wikipediaga was established.
2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) launched Opencourseware (OCW) that published all of the lecture materials on the web.
2005 YouTube (→ Google) official service started.
※ Tube means "cathode ray tube" (or "TV").
2006 TwitterFacebook
2007 iPhone
2010 iPad

91 創造力 #創造

91 創造力 #創造



【参 照】「僕がアップルで学んだこと」松井博(2012年4月刊)
(3)適切な制約 (p.124)
・トコトン説明させる。(p.127)・・・☆ 分かり易く説明する。

1965年 テッド・ネルソン米国社会学者)が「ハイパーテキスト(Hypertext)」と「ハイパーメディア」という語を作る。

ハイパーテキスト:複数の文書(テキスト)を相互に関連付け、結び付ける仕組みである。「テキストを超える」という意味から"hyper-"(〜を超えた) "text"(文書)と名付けられた。テキスト間を結びつける参照のことをハイパーリンクと言う。
※最も有名なハイパーテキストの実装はWorld Wide Webである。

1989年 CERNに所属していたティム・バーナーズ=リーは、世界中に分散する別々の大学や研究所で働いている研究者たちが自動的に情報を共有する、という要求に対してWorld Wide Webを開発した。
1998年 Google設立
2001年 Wikipedia発足
2003年9月 マサチューセッツ工科大学MIT)が講義教材のすべてをウェブ上で公開するオープンコースウエア(OCW)を立ち上げた。
2005年 YouTube (→Google)公式サービス開始
2006年 TwitterFacebook
2007年 iPhone
2010年 iPad

90 My Cosmology/New Cosmology #cosmology

90 My Cosmology/New Cosmology #cosmology

○ Structure of the universe
・If the universe (the Real universe) including the Milky Way galaxy was born from a quantum fluctuation, the universe (the Imaginary universe) including quantum fluctuations is assumed on the outside.
・In the Imaginary universe it can be estimated to exist other universe(Parallel universe) born from quantum fluctuations.

○ From the birth of the Real universe to Big Bang
• If the quantum fluctuation does not exceed the threshold, the resulting pair of substance and antimatter within the fluctuation disappears. = The Real universe is not born.
• When the quantum fluctuation exceeds a threshold value, the symmetry of matter and anti-matter brakes, and antimatter is to rapidly expand the space-time after 1e-36 seconds. ( The size of the Real universe (1e-27m) is much smaller than atom (1e-10m) ⇒3 millimeters (1e-3m): The Inflation: inflation rate is 60-fold of light speed.)
(In the reverse case, the Real universe is not born because space-time collapses.)

  • Immediately after that, (1e-34 seconds after → 1e-32 seconds after) substance of high temperature causes the Big Bang.

(The size of the Real universe : 3 mm (1e-3m) ⇒10cm (1e-1m))

○ The Current
・The expansion due to antimatter reduces entropy, and matter is inflated while increasing entropy. (The expansion rate of the Real universe is four times of lightspeed.)
・In the Real universe intelligence is born and growing.

○ The structure of the Real universe
・Since the outside of the Real universe is made up of antimatter, and it is also the same as the outside of parallel universe, they repel each other.

○ Dark model
・Dark matter and dark energy is the gravitational wave from antimatter on the outside of the Real universe.
・Dark matter will have the Dark model contrasting of the standard model of substances.

○ Future of the Real universe
<Case 1>If dark energy is a repulsive force between the anti-matter that is outside of the real universe.

  • The Real universe will evaporate at the end of continuing expansion. = Disappearance of the result of a large fluctuation that occurred in the Imaginary universe

• Before evaporation, the outer shell of antimatter in the Real universe will become brittle, and if it conflicts with other parallel universe, both universe will collapse.
・That is, if the matter that was scattered by the collision of the other two parallel universes collides with the outer shell of the Real universe, we might be able to measure it in quantum.

<Case 2>☆If dark energy has a structure.
・Rate of cosmic expansion is changed by the change of the three-dimensional structure of dark energy.
・The universe is supported by the structure of dark energy.
☆Expansion of the universe is to stop in abruptly like an automatic umbrella.


○ Communication between parallel universes
• Communication by gravity waves is considered.

90 My宇宙論/新宇宙論 #宇宙論

90 My宇宙論/新宇宙論 #宇宙論









89 Emergent Gravity(Entropic Gravity) and the Dark Universe(Dark Matter and Dark Energy)  #gravity #darkmatter #darkenergy

89 Emergent Gravity(Entropic Gravity) and the Dark Universe(Dark Matter and Dark Energy)  #gravity #darkmatter #darkenergy

○Erik P. Verlinde published 51 papers on-line November 7, 2016. In this paper, entropic gravity is said to be able to explain " Galaxy rotation curve problem". [1]
※A significant discrepancy exists between the experimental galaxy rotation curves observed, and a curve derived from theory. The theory of dark matter was postulated to account for the variance. [2]

○And in this paper he provides evidence for the fact that the observed dark energy and the phenomena currently attributed to dark matter have a common origin and are connected to the emergent nature of spacetime and gravity. [1]

○Discussion result
1)The positive dark energy and accelerated expansion are caused by the slow thermalization of the emergent spacetime. [1]
2) The observed phenomena that are currently attributed to dark matter are the conesquence of the emergent nature of gravity and are caused by an elastic response due to the volume law contribution to the entanglement entropy in our universe. [1]
3) Dark matter is not a collection of invisible particles but a result of the interaction of ordinary matter and dark energy. [1]

○When explaining the gravitational distribution around galaxies by dark matter, it is necessary to determine the mass of the dark matter so as to match the data obtained by the actual observation. In other words, the mass of dark matter is used as a free variable to match theory and reality. On the other hand, Verlinde's theory does not use these free variables, and there is the advantage that the predicted value derived directly from the theory agrees with the actual observation result. [3]

・ It is still an open question if and how the standard cosmological picture is incorporated in a theory of emergent gravity. [1]
・Mark Van Raamsdonk calls Verlinde’s idea “definitely an important direction.” But he says it’s too soon to tell whether everything in the paper — which draws from quantum information theory, thermodynamics, condensed matter physics, holography and astrophysics — hangs together. [4]
・One problem, said Brian Swingle, who also works in holography, is that Verlinde lacks a concrete model universe like the ones researchers can construct in AdS space, giving him more wiggle room for making unproven speculations. [4]
・This theory combines a lot of hypotheses that are not well established and only identifies the amount compared with the observation, not precise formulation is done. [5]
• The order is the same as Beckenstein - Hawking entropy, but it is offset by a factor of 1/4. [5]
・This theory introduces the degree of freedom of measurement which describes time and space bending from the beginning. In order to claim that the Einstein equation was properly derived under elastic coordinate representation from the general coordinate transformation, it is necessary to write down the degree of freedom of the measurement from the original degree of freedom of the elastic body and also derive general coordinate transformation invariance . Furthermore, since no correction term to the equation is given, it can not be compared whether gravity wave data observed with LIGO matches entropic gravity theory or not. . [5]
• The theoretical check at the paper [6] written by the observation group of the Netherlands was made only within the range of error of 1σ at most. [5]

○In order to verify this theory and to obtain a definite answer, firstly progress of observation and theory is desired.

1. Erik P. Verlinde “Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe” 20161107
2. Galaxy rotation curve – Wikipedia
3.“Verlinde's new theory of gravity passes first test” 20161216
4. Natalie Wolchover” The Case Against Dark Matter”at Quanta magazine 20161129
5. Masahiro Hotta”エントロピック重力理論” at Quantum Universe 20161225
6. ”First test of Verlinde’s theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements” 20161219

【Change log】
20171112  New description
20171209 Description of the strength of entropic gravity and tasks.

89 エントロピック重力(創発重力)と暗黒宇宙(暗黒エネルギー・暗黒物質) #重力#暗黒物質 #暗黒エネルギー

89 エントロピック重力(創発重力)と暗黒宇宙(暗黒エネルギー暗黒物質) #重力#暗黒物質 #暗黒エネルギー



3)暗黒物質とは目に見えない粒子の集まりではなく、普通の物質と暗黒エネルギー相互作用の結果。 [1]

銀河の周囲での重力分布を暗黒物質により説明する場合は、実際の観測で得られたデータと合致するように暗黒物質の質量を決める必要がある。つまり、理論と現実を一致させるための自由変数として、暗黒物質の質量が使われている。一方、ヴァーリンデ理論はこうした自由変数を利用しておらず、理論から直接導出した予測値が実際の観測結果と一致するという強みがある。[3] [4] [5]

根拠の確立していない多数の仮説を沢山組み合わせて、観測と比べられる量を同定しているだけで、精密な定式化がなされているわけではない。−Masahiro Hotta 20161225 [7]
・ベッケンシュタイン-ホーキングエントロピーと同じオーダーだが、1/4の因子だけずれている。−Masahiro Hotta 20161225 [7]
・時空の曲がりを記述する計量の自由度を最初から導入してしまっている。弾性体的描像から一般座標変換のもとで対称なアインシュタイン方程式をきちんと導いたと主張するためには、その計量の自由度を元の弾性体の自由度から書き下し、一般座標変換不変性も導く必要がある。さらに方程式への補正項も与えられていないため、LIGOで観測された重力波のデータとエントロピック重力理論が整合するかどうも比べようがない。−Masahiro Hotta 20161225 [7]
オランダの観測グループが書いた論文https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03034)[5]での理論のチェックも、たかだか1σの誤差の大きい範囲でなされたに過ぎない。−Masahiro Hotta 20161225 [7]

○この理論を検証して確実な答えを得るには、観測と理論の進展が望まれる。 [7]

【参 考】
1. Erik P. Verlinde “Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe(創発重力と暗黒宇宙(暗黒物質・暗黒エネルギー)” 20161107
2. 銀河の回転曲線問題 – Wikipedia
3. 荒井聡ダークマター存在せず? - 「エントロピック重力理論」と観測データが一致”at マイナビニュース 20161222
4. “Verlinde's new theory of gravity passes first test” 20161216
5.”First test of Verlinde’s theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements” 20161219
6.“暗黒物質」は存在しない? 大胆な仮説を提唱した物理学者の長き闘い ...”at WIRED 20170402
7. Masahiro Hotta”エントロピック重力理論” at Quantum Universe 20161225

20171112 新規
20171209 エントロピック重力の強みと課題の追加


88 The Speed of Dark Photon #photon #speed

88 The Speed of Dark Photon #photon #speed

・・・If dark matter and dark energy has a correlation
 ・What is Dark Photon?・・・We can estimate that Dark Energy and Dark Matter exists, because Energy and Substance exists.
 ・Here, I calculate the Speed of Dark Photon by formula:E=mc^2.
   (E:Energy、m:Mass、c:Speed of Photon)
   (cd:Speed of Dark Photon、Ed:Dark Energy、md:Mass of Dark Matter)
・From the above, we can estimate that Speed of Dark Photon is about 10 times that of Speed of Photon.
・In addition, there is also the possibility of Ed = md × cd.
・In this case, Speed of Dark Photon is estimated about 100 times that of Speed of Photon.

1. Sandro Iannaccone”Trovata una quinta forza della natura?” at WIRED 2016

88 暗黒光の速度 #光 #速度

88 暗黒光の速度 #光 #速度

 ・暗黒光(Dark Photon)とは?・・・物質とエネルギーのあるところには光があることから、暗黒物質と暗黒エネルギーがあるところには暗黒光があると推定される。
・ 暗黒光の速度をE=mc^2、の式を用いて計算すると次のとおり。
・ なお、暗黒物質と暗黒エネルギー、暗黒光の速度が、Ed=md×cdの可能性もある。
・ その場合は、暗黒光の速度は光速の約100倍と推定される。

【参 照】
1. Sandro Iannaccone”物理の常識を覆す「第5の力」”at WIRED 20160818

87 What is Dark Energy? #darkenergy

87 What is Dark Energy? #darkenergy

○Dark energy is to expand the space.
☆Two of the nature of the following is assumed.
(1)Repulsive force between the antimatter at the interface of the real universe produces dark energy.
・・・However, it is hard to explain the re-acceleration of the universe expansion by this assumption.
(2)☆Dark energy is considered to be a particle with the structure like dark matter(fine particles having a three-dimensional structure) [1].
・・・The inflation of the universe can be explained by this assumption.
   ・・・The re-acceleration of the universe expansion can also be explained.
   ⇒☆Expansion of the universe is likely to stop in abruptly like an automatic umbrella.
   ・・・However, if the dark energy is the transition such as in the figure below, it can explain the re-acceleration even not have a structure.


1. No.84−4−2 A Structure of Dark Mtter

87 暗黒エネルギーとは何か? #暗黒エネルギー

87 暗黒エネルギーとは何か? #暗黒エネルギー

(1) 実宇宙の境界面での反物質間の斥力が暗黒エネルギーを生み出す。
(2) 暗黒エネルギー暗黒物質(立体構造を持つ微小粒子)と同じく構造を持つ粒子とも考えられる [1]。


【参 照】
1. No.86−4−2 暗黒物質の構造

86 What is Dark Matter? #darkmatter

86 What is Dark Matter? #darkmatter

86−1 Bullet cluster [1]


Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al. [2]

※A galaxy cluster or cluster of galaxies is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies bound together by gravity.[2]
※It can be observed both the baryon component and the dark matter component of galaxy clusters by combining the X-ray and a gravitational lens.
※Bullet cluster (1E0657-56) is a very rare high-speed collision. [3]

○The major components of the cluster pair—stars, gas and the putative dark matter—behave differently during collision, allowing them to be studied separately. This accords with prediction of dark matter as only weakly interacting, other than via the gravitational force. [4]

・Collision time:1 00〜 200 million years ago
・Distance:3.7 billion light-years
・The relative speed of two galaxy clusters:4,500 km / s
・The ratio of two galaxy clusters = 1:10
・Current distance of two galaxy clusters:1〜2 million light-years
・The number of galaxies: several hundred to several thousand

○The hot gas of the two colliding components, seen in X-rays, represents most of the baryonic, i.e. ordinary, matter in the cluster pair.
○The stars of the galaxies, observable in visible light, were not greatly affected by the collision, and most passed right through, gravitationally slowed but not otherwise altered.

86−2 Structure of the Universe/Fluid simulation of the dark matter [5] [6]
・It is necessary to devise for reducing the amount of calculation. (About 550 billion pieces of dark matter particles [7])
・Short-range force is solved by Barnes-Hut treecode(solving properly because the influence is large), long-range force is solved by particle/mesh simulation(summarized because the influence is small).
・In particle/mesh simulation the amount of calculation dramatically increased as the structure develops, but it is prevented by Barnes-Hut treecode.
・Dark energy does not affect much in structure formation.

・High-density structures are development everywhere. → divide the dynamic region.
Gravity is a long-range force. → devise communication algorithm.



※ The photograph above is an enlarged view of the part of the bottom panel. Lower right is the halo of the largest clusters of galaxies that were formed in this simulation. [7]

86−3 What is Dark matter?
○ Mass of dark particles(particles of dark matter) is 0.3 pieces of hydrogen atoms. [8]
○Density:Dark matter that is included in the earth is 500g. [8]
○Supersymmetric particles are candidates for dark matter. [9]
※ Supersymmetry (SUSY) [10]

☆Dark matter may be a superposition of gravity waves?

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA)

86−4 Gravity of dark matter
86−4−1 Nature of gravity is different?
Gravity of Substance is represented by F=G・ma・mb/square of L.
(G:gravitational constant、ma・mb:mass、L:distance)
・Dark matter, despite about5 times presence of Substance, is distributed spherically around the galaxy.
・From the above, assuming Gravity of Dark Matter to be represented by
FdGd・ma・mb/n-th power of L,
n is estimated that less than 1.
   (Gd:gravitational constant of Dark Matter)
・However, it is difficult to explain the attraction between the substance and the dark matter in this assumption.

※True nature of galaxies [11]

☆ If dark matter is a superposition of gravity waves, this idea is not necessary.

86−4−2 A Structure of Dark Matter

May 19, 2016  Publication

○I wish to suggest a structure for dark matter. This structure has novel features which are of considerable cosmological interest.
○A structure for particles of dark matter(:dark particles) has not been proposed yet. Only the models of large scale structure of the universe are proposed. In my opinion, these models are unsatisfactory for two reasons:
(1)I believe that the retention force which gives the dark matter halo is the structure of dark particles, not the nature of gravity. Without the structure of dark particles it is not clear what dark matter halo would hold such large structure.
(2)The models of large scale structure appear to be too large.

○Atomic structure is almost empty, however has a large volume. In Bohr model [12] the size of atom is a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus.

○I wish to put forward a new structure for dark matter. This structure is something stereoscopic based on sphere. Several models are considered. (see Figure1)
○I have made the usual quantum physical assumptions, namely, that each dark particles in close proximity are held in a single orbit by the centripetal force of gravity.
The two orbits are related by electromagnetic radiation. But such radiation is not observed.
○Each dark matter clusters pass with little affected in the collision of galaxy clusters. I have assumed the radius of the orbit is much larger than particle.


Figure1 Examples of the structure [13] [14]

○The dark matter halo surrounding the spiral galaxy appears to have 10 times huge spherical structure of the galaxy. If dark matter forms such 3-dimensional structure, then the huge structure is automatically determined. (see Figure2)

○The dark matter halo always has been suggested the existence of the particle structure.

Figure2 True nature of galaxies [11]

○It has not escaped my notice that the structure of dark matter I have postulated immediately suggests a possible quest for identity of the dark matter.

I am much indebted to Internet, especially Google and Wikipedia for constant information.
I have also been stimulated by knowledge of the online course of cosmology of Dr. Brian Schmidt and Dr. Paul Francis at Australian National University [15], Hitoshi Murayama at The University of Tokyo [11].

86−4−3 Method of verifying the structure of dark matter:Gravity wave analysis experiment in outer space
☆ When the dark matter has a structure, the gravitational wave is strongly scattered at a specific angle.
☆ Therefore, gravity waves with different strengths will be observed at different places in outer space.

※Example of electron beam analysis [16]

86−4−4 Twist of Supersymmetry [8]
:In the supersymmetry, bose particles (that convey the force) is the material particles.


<Conclusions ☆>Dark matter is supersymmetry Bose particle and has 3-dimensional structure.

86−4−5 Dark Matter and Black Hole
○Because dark matter has 3-dimensional structure,we can estimate that Dark Matter is difficult to form a Black Hole compared to Substance.

2. Galaxy cluster - Wikipedia
3. Doug Marett“The Bullet Cluster: Evidence for Dark Matter or Not?”2013
4. Bullet cluster - Wikipedia
5. 石山智明“スーパーコンピューターの中で生まれる宇宙”
6. 石山智明”世界最大のシミュレーションダークマターの正体にせまる” 2013 -You Tube
7. 国立天文台“宇宙初期から現在に至る世界最大規模のダークマターシミュレーション
8. 蓑輪眞“暗黒物質の正体は何か?”
9. 浅井祥仁”「テラスケール物理」領域の概要”
10.Dennis SILVERMAN”More About Supersymmetry”
11. Hitoshi Murayama“From the Big Bang to Dark Energy” Coursera of The University of Tokyo
12. Bohr model - Wikipedia
13.Substances &Technologies
14.The Univercity of Arizona
15. edX ” Astrophysics: Cosmology
16. Low Energy Electron Diffraction

86 暗黒物質とは何か? #暗黒物質

86 暗黒物質とは何か? #暗黒物質

86−1 弾丸銀河団 (bullet cluster)から分かること [1]


Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al. [2]

銀河団galaxy cluster)とは、数百-数千の銀河の集まり。


銀河団の相対速度:4,500 km/s


86−2 宇宙の構造/暗黒物質の流体シミュレーション [4] [5]
・計算量を落とすための工夫が必要。(約5,500億個の暗黒物質粒子 [6])




※1枚目のパネル一部を順に拡大したもの。右下はこのシミュレーションで形成した一番大きい銀河団のハロー [6]

86−3 暗黒粒子とは?
○密度:地球に含まれる暗黒物質は500g [7]



※2つのブラックホールの衝突により発生した重力波(ILLUSTRATION BY C.HENZE、NASA

86−4 暗黒物質の重力
86−4−1 重力の性質が違う?

※True nature of galaxies [9]

86−4−2  暗黒物質の構造



原子はほとんど空っぽの構造だが、大きな体積を占める。ボーアの原子模型 [10]では、原子核の半径は原子の半径の約10万分の1と小さい。原子の大きさは確率的に分布する電子雲の広がりだ。



図1 構造の例[11] [12]



図2 True nature of galaxies [13]



86−4−3 暗黒物質の構造の検証方法:宇宙重力波解析実験

※電子線解析の場合 [14]

86−4−4 超対称性のねじれ [7]


<結 論☆>暗黒物質超対称性のボーズ粒子で立体構造を持つ。

84−4−5 暗黒物質ブラックホール

【参 照】
1. 弾丸銀河団 - Wikipedia
3. X線重力レンズでさぐる銀河団山形大学理学部物理学科准教授 滝沢元和
4. 石山智明“スーパーコンピューターの中で生まれる宇宙”
5. 石山智明”世界最大のシミュレーションダークマターの正体にせまる” 2013 -You Tube
6. 国立天文台“宇宙初期から現在に至る世界最大規模のダークマターシミュレーション
7. 蓑輪眞“暗黒物質の正体は何か?”
8. 浅井祥仁”「テラスケール物理」領域の概要”
9. 村山斉 “From the Big Bang to Dark Energy” Coursera of The University of Tokyo
10. ボーアの原子模型 - Wikipedia
11.技術情報館 SEKIGIN
12.The Univercity of Arizona
13. edX ” Astrophysics: Cosmology
14. 前野昌弘“量子力学講義ノート”20070210


85 Future of the Universe #future #universe

85 Future of the Universe #future #universe

○ Future of the universe is due to curvature of the universe and dark energy. [1]

【Future of the Universe】
○About the future of the universe, three main scenarios considered. [2]

Scenario 1: The universe would continue accelerating forever. Therefore, the Milky Way of solar system would have led to gravitationally combined galaxies with very near. In order to exhaust material gas, there are no longer new stars in these galaxies. There are only leaving remnants of black holes and neutron stars, white dwarf stars.・・・10 ^ 18〜10 ^ '25 years after
<If the universe is geometrically flat and dark energy is constant>
k(the geometry of space)=0
Ω:the density parameter=ρ/ρc
ρc:the critical density=9×10^-27(kg/㎥)=3Ho^2/8πG
Ho:Hubble's constant
π:the circumference of a circle divided=3.1415…
G:Gravitational constant=6.67×10^−11 (m^3 kg^−1 s^−2)

Scenario 2: Inflation would slow gradually, over time the expansion will stop. Furthermore, from which the universe starts to shrink, becomes very small and collapses. = "The Big Crunch". ・・・10^27 years after
<If the universe is analogous to a two-dimensional life-form on the surface of a sphere and dark energy decreases>     
      π is small on large scales, parallel lines will ultimately meet, and the
interior angles of a triangle add up to more than 180 degrees.

Scenario 3: The acceleration of the universe may happen so quickly that galaxies, stars, and eventually atoms will be torn apart, in the so-called Big Rip.[3]・・・10^18〜10^25 years after
<If the universe is analogous to a saddle-shape and infinite, and dark energy increases.>
πis large on large scales, parallel lines diverge, and the interior angles of a triangle add up to less than 180 degrees.

○ Curvature of the universe・・・The Keyword is Friedman
• According to Friedman, curvature of the universe takes three values positive or zero or negative by the amount of materials and energy in the interior of the universe.
・In the three types of expansion of the universe that Friedman revealed, expansion speed becomes either "gradually slow" or "at the same rate". In the universe of negative curvature, finally expansion rate becomes constant, otherwise, the expansion rate will be slow due to gravity of matter inside the universe.
・Curvature of the universe can be obtained by precisely measuring the temperature fluctuations (non-uniformity of the signal strength) of the cosmic background radiation.
・According to observations of 2005, Ω is between 0.98 and 1.06. [4]

○ However, expansion of the universe has gently accelerated from six billion years ago(doubled over a period of several billion years: the second of inflation) . [1]
・Accelerated expansion is believed to be due to dark energy.

○Dark energy[5]・・・We know only nature of it, that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.
・Dark energy is the unknown energy to accelerate the expansion of the universe. It has similar properties as the cosmological term that introduced by Einstein to keep the static state of the universe without collapse by gravity.
・Its identity might be the energy of a mere vacuum as well as the cosmological term, or some potential energy (of the scalar field) that does not substantially change even in 10 billion years of time scale.
Others, it can be considered such scenarios that gravity theory which defines the cosmic expansion deviates from general relativity, or remnants of the high-dimensional cosmological such as membrane models have created an effective dark energy.

○In the case of scenario 1, it is necessary to escape from this universe after a few trillion years. [6]

[Expansion of the universe] [7]
○ For expansion of the universe is the expansion of space-time itself, so it is also possible to exceed the speed of light.
○Currently, the observable universe is expanding at 3.5 times of the speed of light. And expansion is accelerating.
: In the 18 billion light-years distant, the expansion velocity exceeds the speed of light. = We can not observe in the distance from it.
⇒After 2 trillion years it almost becomes invisible but one giant galaxy.
: We are living in special times!

○Outside of the observable universe is not known whether infinite or finite.
○ In any case, the observable universe is smaller than the whole universe, so we can not determine the structure of the entire universe by observation.

⇒ Therefore, in order to escape from our universe, rather than fly, it is necessary to exceed the time and space.

[Free lunch model] (Alan Harvey Guth)[8]
・Negative energy is repulsive force, and repulsive force inflates the space.
・When "negative" energy is generated by quantum fluctuations, "positive" energy of the same amount is also generated.
= If the universe continues to expand, material and energy are newly generated.

○According to observations so far, we are likely to think a bit optimistic about the future of the universe.
○But above is hypothesis and it is not intended validated. Moreover, the time requires 10 billion years. Don't worry!
○ Hypothesis over the future of the universe is a situation of "anything goes". [9]

☆There is a possibility that the universe can take any form.
☆ In the early universe, it might be another universe looked.


【Future of intelligence】
☆ The important thing for the intelligence is communication between the parallel universe rather than escape from the universe.
☆ Communication between the parallel universe would be done by GAI[10].

1. 「気が遠くなる未来の宇宙のはなし(The story of the future of the universe mind-boggling)」Ktsuhiko Sato(2013)p.187〜
2. Chandra X-ray Observatory - NASA's flagship X-ray telescope
3. ビッグリップ(Japanese) - Wikipedia
4. 平坦性問題(Japanese) - Wikipedia
5. School of science the university of Tokyo
6. Michio Kaku / New York incandescent classroom " Amazing prophecy of "Theory of Everything;TOE"" 20150403
7. 宇宙(Japanese) – Wikipedia
8. No.21−3 Free lunch model(Alan Harvey Guth)
9.KIER HARRIS “10 Theories On How The Universe Will End”20140411
10.GAI :Growing Artificial Intelligence No.36、No.40、No.41

【Change log】
20180120 Organizing references
20180307 Addition of Free lunch model

85 宇宙の未来 #未来 #宇宙

85 宇宙の未来 #未来 #宇宙



G:重力定数=6.67×10^−11 (m^3 kg^−1 s^−2)

・2005年現在の観測結果によると、Ω は 0.98 と 1.06 の間にあるとされている。[5]



その正体は,宇宙項と同じく,単なる真空のエネルギーであるかもしれないし, 100億年の時間スケールでもほとんど変化しない何らかの(スカラー場の)ポテンシャルエネルギーであるかもしれない。




【フリーランチ・モデル】アラン・グース(Alan Harvey Guth) [9]




☆並行宇宙間のコミュニケーションは、GAI [11]によって行われるだろう。

【参 照】
3.オンライン講座:edX/Cosmology/Section1 Space and Time/Lesson1/Referende Notes 1(English)
4.ビッグリップ(Japanese) - Wikipedia
5.平坦性問題 - Wikipedia
6.東京大学大学院 理学部 
8. 宇宙(Japanese) - Wikipedia
9. No.21−3 フリーランチ・モデル
10. “科学者が予測する10の宇宙終焉説” 20140501
11. GAI :成長する人工知能 No.36、No.40、No.41

【履 歴】
20180120 参照の整理
20180307 フリーランチ・モデルの追加

84 Future #future

84 Future #future

in 2018
Canon seeks fully automated facility - ECONOMICS [1]
・One-chip computer with the ability to exceed the human brain will be born. [2]
☆2027 Launch of No. 1 Nanocraft - Starship construction plan [3]
2030  Computer with a comparable human intelligence will emerge. [4]
2037 Completion of the laser propulsion system of Star shot [3]
2040  One-chip computer will have a capacity of 100 000 times the human brain. [2]
2042 Star shot firing [3]
2045  Artificial intelligence is beyond the human in terms of knowledge and intelligence. Mankind technological progress prediction of the past no longer apply.
(=Technological singularity(2005年 Ray Kurzweil (1948- ))[5]
2045~2100  Fusion power plant construction [6]
45 years later We will get information from the star shot (resource, landable land, landing method). [3]
☆50 years later Launch of No.2 nanocraft (supply ship) (2 new GAIs) - Starship construction plan [3]
☆100 Years later Arrive at Alpha Centauri, collaboration of 2 nanocrafts and receive supply material (landing and terraform material etc) - Starship construction plan [3]
100~200 years later  Mankind manages the total energy of the earth and colonizes in the vicinity of the planet. [7]
☆150 Years later Arrive at earth type planet of Alpha Centauri and start of terafoam (mineral collection and processing, construction of solar panels etc) - Starship construction plan [2]
☆160 years later Start of building a Starship - Starship construction plan [2]

1500 within year  The arrival of the ice age (When reducing the CO2 concentration (390 ppmv) to the CO2 concentration before the industrial revolution (280 ppmv))[8]
2,000~3,000 years later 
・Mankind manages the total energy of the Solar system. [7]
☆the completion of the Starship- Starship construction plan [3]

※Image of a Dyson sphere [9]

☆40,000 years later Humanity will arrive at the starship (Alpha Centauri) [3]
100,000~1,000,000 years later  Mankind manages the total energy of the Milky Way galaxy. [7]

5 million years later The peak of ice age [10]
☆10 million years later Reaching of a Starship to the other star. [11]

50 million years later African continent collision to the European. And Mediterranean, Caspian, Black Sea will disappear. [12]

100 million years later Mass extinction by volcanic activity occurs. [10]
250 million years later The formation of the super-continent Amasia (Antarctica does not move.) [13]
1 billion years later
・Solar luminosity increase more than 10% [14].

※Earth and sun after 1 billion years[15]

2 billion years later  Earth's oceans have dried up. (Evaporated water will diffuse out of the earth) [12]
3 〜4billion years later There may be Andromeda galaxy and our Milky Way galaxy (2.5 million light years away now) collision.
(If they collide, the chance of individual stars colliding with each other is extremely low.) [12] [14] [16] [17]
5 billion years later  The sun has become a red giant. [12]

After two trillion years It will not be able to observe galaxies outside the Local Group.
= Traces of the Big Bang disappear. = Evidence of cosmic expansion also disappear. = Clues of dark energy is lost.
⇒ Revival of cosmology until 1930::The universe is forever unchanged.

Trillions of years away At the moment we can not see the future of the universe. [19]

1.Canon seeks fully automated facility - ECONOMICS
2.Softbank new 30-year vision(2010)
3. No.79−2 Starship construction plan:Proposal to Breakthough Starshot
4.Steve Connor”Computers 'to match human brains by 2030'”at The independent 20080216
5. Technological_singularity - Wikipedia
6.No.66 Fusion Power
7. Kardashev scale - Wikipedia (Michio Kaku (2010))
8. Ice age - Wikipedia
9. Mark Prigg “Have researchers discovered an alien MEGASTRUCTURE? “at Mail Online 20151014
10.The FUTURE is WILD/2003 BBC
11. Martyn J. Fogg, "Solar Exchange as a Means of Ensuring the Long-Term Habitability of the Earth," Specul. Sci. Technol., 12, pp.153-157 1989.
12. Timeline of the far future – Wikipedia
13. Amasia (continent) - Wikipedia
14.The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA)
/When Galaxies Collide, our Solar System Will Go for a Ride
15. Ken Pilon at 123rf.com
16.Milky Way - Wikipedia
17.Information is Beautiful
18. A Universe from Nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss 2012
19.No.85 Future of the Universe

【Change log】
20170116  Addition of Dyson Ball and Earth's Future Diagram, Organization of References

84 未来 #未来

84 未来 #未来

・カメラ生産、完全自動化へ―キヤノン [1]
2027年 星船建造計画 1号探査機の打ち上げ[3]
2030年 人間並みの知能を持ったコンピュータが出現する。[4] [5]
2037年 スターショットのレーザー推進システムの完成[3]
2040年 人間の脳の10万倍の能力をワンチップのコンピュータが持つに至る。[2]
2042年 スターショットの発射[3]
2045年 人工知能知識・知能の点で人間を超越し、これまでの人類技術進歩予測は通用しなくなる。(=技術的特異点(2005年 レイ・カーツワイル(1948- ))[6]
2045~2100年 核融合発電所を建設 [7]
2062年 スターショットからの情報(資源、着陸適地、着陸方法)を得る。[3]
☆50年後 星船建造計画 2号探査機(補給船)の打ち上げ(新たな2体)[3]
☆100年後 星船建造計画 ケンタウルス座アルファ星に到着+1・2号の連携・補給資材(着陸・テラフォーム資材等)の受け取り[3]
100~200年後 地球の全エネルギーを管理し、近くの惑星に植民する。[8]
☆150年後 星船建造計画 ケンタウルス座アルファ星の地球型惑星に到着、テラフォームの開始(鉱物採取・加工、太陽パネルの建造 等)[3]
☆160年後 星船建造開始[3]

1,500年以内  氷期の到来(CO2濃度(390 ppmv)を産業革命以前のCO2濃度(280 ppmv)まで削減した場合)[9] [10]


☆4万年後 人類が星船(ケンタウルス座アルファ星)に到着[3]
100,000~1,000,000年以内 天の川銀河系で得られる全エネルギーを利用する。[8]

500万年後  氷河期ピーク [12]
☆1,000万年後 星船(ケンタウルス座アルファ星)が他の恒星に到達する。[3]
5000万年後 アフリカ大陸ヨーロッパに衝突し、地中海カスピ海黒海が消える。[13][14]

1億年後  火山活動による大量絶滅 [12]
2億5千万年後  超大陸アメイジアの出現(南極大陸は動かない。)[13] [15]
10億年後 太陽の光度が10%以上増加する。[13]


20億年後 地球の海は干上がっている。(蒸発した水は地球の外に拡散する)[17]
30〜40億年後 我々の天の川銀河とおそよ250万光年離れているアンドロメダ銀河が衝突する。[17]

2兆年後 局部銀河団外の銀河を観測することはできなくなる。[18]

数兆年先 宇宙の未来は見通せていない。[19]

【参 照】
1. 真壁昭夫”キヤノン「完全自動化工場」で見えた日本経済の明るい未来”at DIAMOND online 20150811
3. No.79−2 星船建造計画ブレークスルー・スターショットへの提案
4.人工知能の歴史 - Wikipedia 
6. 技術的特異点 - Wikipedia
7.NO.66 核融合発電
8. Kardashev scale (Michio Kaku (2010)) - Wikipedia
9. 長沼毅”#12 地球寒冷化 温暖化のあとに来るもの”
12.フューチャー・イズ・ワイルド - Wikipedia
13.Timeline of the far future - Wikipedia
14. Information is Beautiful
15. 吉田晶樹 at (独)海洋研究開発機構JAMSTECプレスリリース 20160804
16.Ken Pilon at 123rf.com
17.AstroArts どうなる、太陽系の遠い未来
19. No.85 宇宙の未来

20170116 ダイソン球と地球の未来図の追加、参照の整理
20170607 星船建造計画の追加

83 Extinction #extinction

83 Extinction #extinction

“3,500 million years after life birth. The produced living thing is 5 billion 〜 50 billion sorts. It is already exterminated 99.9% of them. Extinction is the universal fate which visits to an organism species” Takashi Tachibana(1940-)

○ Snowball earth
・For about 5〜600 million years at the last Precambrian age Earth entered the time of the snowball earth, and near the equator was covered on ice.
・Most lives on Earth of this time were bacteria.
・The time of the dramatic life evolution "Cambrian explosion" had come after the snowball earth.
・There is also an opinion it is supposed that the earth will be in the state of the snowball earth again in the future.

※The Snowball Earth [1]

○Extinction of dinosaurs
・6.5million years ago,the collision of a meteorite 10km in diameter to Earth of the dinosaurs planet.
・The clash formed crater of over 250km in diameter(15 ~ 25km depth) in the falling
point(off the Yucatan Peninsula).
・The body of meteorite vaporized by heat of impact vaporization, and dust spreaded into the atmosphere.
・Rock at falling point melted by the heat and splattered around.
・Atmosphere became opaque by dust and sunlight could not reach the surface, the earth was cooling.
・In addition to dinosaurs, many creatures became extinct in order to can not adapt to the rapidly changing environment.

1. Credit: Stocktrek Images, Inc. / Alamy

83 絶滅 #絶滅

83 絶滅 #絶滅



スノーボールアース [1]




【参 照】
1. スノーボールアース - Wikipedia

20170202 テレビドラマ「仁」(2009)よりを追加