スタジオグーダ!(Studio Gooda!)


67 Fusion Power #SpaceTravel

67 Fusion Power #SpaceTravel

67−1 ITER( International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) [1]
・The goal is to build a fusion power plant in 2040-2050.
・The ITER experimental design has been changed to 2020, one year later than originally planned, under the influence of in eastern earthquake. Aim to start full-scale operation in 2027 as planned. The total project cost is 2 trillion yen.
・In addition, experimental reactor completion of the 2020 has become difficult.

・The name is derived from iter (: Net, Road).
・Seven countries and Region (Japan, China, EU, India, Russia, South Korea, USA)are involved in the this plan.
ITER construction site is in Cadarache, France.

※Tokamak :A tokamak is a device that uses a toroidal field (traveling around the torus in circles) and a poloidal field (traveling in circles orthogonal to the toroidal field). In a tokamak, the toroidal field is produced by electromagnets that surround the torus, and the poloidal field is the result of a toroidal electric current that flows inside the plasma. This current is induced inside the plasma with a second set of electromagnets. In this device, construction cost is cheap but plasma is unstable. [2]

67−2 Nuclear Fusion Reaction [3]
○The most-researched candidate for producing controlled thermonuclear fusion power is D-T fusion reaction. (D: deuterium, T: tritium)

○Deuterium is contained in large quantities in seawater.
○Tritium is breeded while irradiated with neutrons in lithium blanket surrounding the fusion reactor.


67−3 Proton-proton chain reaction [4]
○The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
○Plasma(atomic nuclei and electrons become apart) is confined by gravity.

Individual reaction

・ν is e-neutrino, γ is gamma ray.
・(1-1) occurs at a rate of99.75%( (1-2) :0.25%).

67−4 Merit and Demerit
○Merit : Nuclear fusion reaction is stopped automatically with a little adjustment mistake.
○Demerit:Radioactive waste of the same level as nuclear power plant.

67−5 Cold Fusion [5]
○The research is continuing.

67−6 News
○The Wendelstein 7-X fusion device(W7-X)(Stellarator)at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Greifswald produced its first hydrogen plasma on 3 February 2016.
・Successive extensions are planned until, in about 4 years, discharges lasting 30 minutes.
The practical application of nuclear fusion is expected of around 2025. [6]

・Germany has forged ahead in funding the project, which in the past 20 years has cost €1.06bn.

※Stellarator [7](Helical Device):A stellarator is a device used to confine hot plasma with magnetic fields in order to sustain a controlled nuclear fusion reaction.
The name refers to the possibility of harnessing the power source of the sun, a stellar object.

※ The diameter of the W7-X is 10m. [7]

○A small, modular, efficient fusion plant (Tokamak)
New design could finally help to bring the long-sought power source closer to reality.
 August 10, 2015  MIT News [8]

Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [8]

2. Tokamak - Wikipedia
3. Fusion power - Wikipedia
4. Proton-proton chain reaction - Wikipedia
5. Cold Fusion - Wikipedia
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. Stellarator - Wikipedia
8. MIT News

67 核融合発電 #宇宙旅行

67 核融合発電 #宇宙旅行

67−1 国際的な核融合実験炉(ITER(イーターと読む))[1]

※トカマク型:トロイダル(Toroidal 円環状の)コイルを流れる電流とプラズマ中を流れるトロイダル電流によってプラズマの閉じこめ磁場を形成する。建設コストが安いがプラズマ不安定。[2]

67−2 核融合反応 [3]



67−3 太陽の核融合反応とどう違う?[4]
○太陽と同程度かそれより質量の小さい恒星でのエネルギー生成の大半を担っているのは陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)。


・ (1-1) は99.75%, (1-2) は0.25%の割合で生じる。

67−4 核融合の利点と欠点 [3]


67−5 常温核融合 [5]

67−6 ニュース
ドイツのマックス・プランク研究所の核融合炉「ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X」(W7-X)(ステラレーター型)で水素プラズマの生成に成功(20160203)。[6] [7]



2015年8月 MITアメリカマサチューセッツ工科大学)が小型核融合炉技術(トカマク型)を開発。2025年までに核融合炉の開発が可能に。[10]

Illustration courtesy of the MIT ARC team [10]

【参 考】
1. ITER - Wikipedia
2. トカマク型 - Wikipedia
3. 核融合炉 - Wikipedia
4. 陽子-陽子連鎖反応(proton-proton chain reaction)- Wikipedia
5. Wikipedia - 常温核融合
6. IPP:Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik
7. ヴェンデルシュタイン 7-X - Wikipedia
8. ヘリカル型 - Wikipedia
9. Stellarator - Wikipedia
10. MIT News

66 Colonization of the Planet #SpaceTravel

66 Colonization of the Planet #SpaceTravel

66−1 Colonization in the solar system
66−1−1 International Space Station (ISS)(1999〜2024)) [1]
・Altitude:400 km
・Crew: 6 people
・Participating countries:USA, Russia, the European Space Agency, Canada, Japan
・It requires little replenishment of water by also play the water from the urine not only the condensed water in the air. [2]
・Additional crewmembers are transported to the ISS by Soyuz.
Total cost: 154 billion dollars [2]

ISS [3]

66−1−2 Earth’s Moon
Google and the X Prize Foundation will hold the moon unmanned exploration race "Google Luna • X Prize (GLXP)"! [4]
・Race participants compete to send high-definition images and videos to the earth until the end 2017.
・Grand Prize $20 million

○About the Moon [5]
・Average distance from Earth: 380,000 km
・Travel time:3 days
Gravity:1/6 of that found on Earth
・Atmosphere:With too sparse an atmosphere to impede impacts, a steady rain of asteroids, meteoroids and comets strikes the surface of the moon.
・Water:In 2009, orbiting spacecraft discovered water molecules on the moon.
・Oxigen:The crust is made of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminum, with small amounts of titanium, uranium, thorium, potassium and hydrogen.
・Radiation:It does not provide any protection from the sun's radiation.
・Long ago the moon had active volcanoes, but today they are all dormant and have not erupted for millions of years.


66−1−3 Mars
66−1−3−1 Mars One[6 ][7]
Mars One aims to create a permanent human colony on Mars in 2027.
2016 Latest tests will cut candidates down to just 40 - 24 of whom will make the trip
2017 The first teams of candidates are expected to be selected and start training.
2020 A demonstration mission is sent to Mars to test technologies, while a satellite is placed into Martian orbit.
2022 A rover is launched to Mars to find a settlement location.
2024 Mars One sends a second rover, two living units, two life support systems and a supply unit to Mars, to form the habitat.
2027  First humans land on Mars
2028〜 Additional 2crews will land every two years.

Mars One is possible with conventional technology, but funding is a problem.
・Cost: $ 6 billion
(Funds are raised in broadcasting rights and donations.)
(So far, it has raised $ 780,000.)

Mars One Webshop [7]

66−1−3−2 SpaceX [8]
○The SpaceX CEO has unveiled a vision for the colonization of Mars that he says will involve hundreds of reusable craft, each carrying somewhere between 100 and 250 colonists or so and also producing fuel from available resources on Mars for the return trips.
2018 Unmanned missions could commence.

66−1−3−3 About Mars [9]
・A trip to Mars:6–7 months
・Diameter:half of the Earth
Gravity:about 40% of the Earth
・Rotation period:24 hours and 40 minutes
・Satellites, two (Deimos, Phobos)
Air:0.75% of the Earth (95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon)
・Water:there is ice in the basement.
・Due to the lack of a magnetosphere, solar particle events and cosmic rays can easily reach the Martian surface.
・Rradiation levels in orbit above Mars are 2.5 times higher than at the International Space Station.

66−1−4 Space elevators
○Now, why do we need space elevators?
○Because transportation cost of space elevator is 1/160 of the rocket.
※Transportation cost of space elevator::5million〜10 million$/t(Falcon:1.6billion$/t) [10]

○In 2012, the Obayashi Corporation announced that in 38 years it could build a space elevator using carbon nanotube technology. At 200 kilometers per hour, the design's 30-passenger climber would be able to reach the GEO level after a 7.5 day trip. [10]
○An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit (35,800 km altitude). [10]
○To construct a space elevator on Earth the cable material would need to be both stronger and lighter. [10]
※ The length of the cable: 144,000km, weight :7,000t
○The estimated construction costs would be $10 billion.

宇宙エレベーター [11]

66−2 Alpha Centauri [12]
Alpha Centauri (α Cen) is the closest star system to the Solar System at 4.37 ly. It consists of three stars
○Mass and Age
・A:1.1M(the mass of the Sun)、4.85 billion years
・B:0.907M、4.85 billion years
・C (Proxima):0.123M、4.85 billion years
○Reaching period:30,000 years(Current technology)
○About 25,000 years later, Alpha Centauri will be 3.26 ly away.
○If you think the energy and safety between the long-term move, it is necessary to utilize the forces of nature.
→No.80−1 Starship Solar-System(SSS

○The Sun lies at a distance of 25,000–28,000 light-years from the Milky Way Galactic Center. The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy that has a diameter usually considered to be about 100,000–120,000 light-years
・The Milky Way contains over 200 billion stars.

☆Depending on the movement of neighborhood stars, there is a possibility that the sun is close to the other stars.

※The monement of the local solar neighborhood [13]

66−4 Collision with Andromeda Galaxy [14]
○In about four billion years, the Milky Way will collide with its nearest neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy. The two are rushing towards each other at about 112 km per second.
○After the Collision the two galaxy should settle into a smooth elliptical galaxy.

66−5 News
○A diamond planet was found![15]
・This planet is only 40 light-years away.
・It takes 300,000 years for one way, 600,000 years for round trip by the spacecraft.

☆Hasten the development of the Hayabusa-Z!

1. Tim SharpInternational Space Station: Facts, History & Tracking“at Space.com 2160405
2. 国際宇宙ステーション - Wikipedia
3.”The International Space Station: Together is the Future” NASA
4. "Google Luna • X Prize (GLXP)"
5. Moon: Home - NASA
6.MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM “The final countdown for Mars One: 100 remaining candidates for controversial one way trip to undergo 'intense' testing” 20160606
7. Mars One
8. Sid Perkins”Elon Musk’s path to Mars begins with Red Dragon—but what science will it do?”at Science 20160927
9. C olonization of Mars - Wikipedia
10. Space elevator - Wikipedia
11. 石井 英男”宇宙エレベーターが実現する「2050年宇宙の旅」” at TELESCOPE Magazine 2013
12. Alpha Centauri - Wikipedia
13. BhavanaJagat
14. Nola Taylor Redd” The Andromeda Galaxy (M31): Location, Characteristics & Images”at SPACE.com 20120508
15. Caterina Visco” Il pianeta di diamante”at WIRED 20120812

66 惑星への植民 #宇宙旅行

66 惑星への植民 #宇宙旅行

66−1 太陽系内植民
66−1−1 国際宇宙ステーション(1999〜2024) [1]

ISS [2]

66−1−2 月

○月の諸元 [4]


66−1−3 火星
66−1−3−1 マーズワン(Mars One)>[5 ][6]
2016年9月 移住希望者24人を選ぶ。
2017年 最初のチームを選抜し、訓練を始める。
2020年 実験施設を火星に送り込み、火星衛星軌道に衛星を設置する。
2022年 ローバーを送り込む。
2024年 生命維持施設を2基設置する。
2027年 4人を火星に移住させる。

(これまでに、$ 780000を調達)

Mars One Webshop [7]

66−1−3−2 スペースXSpaceX)社 [8]
ファルコン9(Falcon 9)ブースターをスケールアップしたものを使う。
2018年 無人宇宙貨物船「ドラゴン(Dragon)」を火星に送り込む。
2025年 有人宇宙船火星に到着。

66−1−3−3 火星の諸元 [9]

66−1−4 宇宙エレベーター
宇宙エレベータの輸送コスト:0.05億円〜0.1億円/t [11] (ファルコンは16億円/t) [12]



宇宙エレベーター [13]

66−2 ケンタウルス座アルファ星 [14]
→No.80 星船=宇宙船太陽系

66−3 太陽周辺の恒星の動き [15]


66−4 アンドロメダ銀河との衝突 [15]

66−5 News

【参 照】
1. 国際宇宙ステーション - Wikipedia
2. ”The International Space Station: Together is the Future” NASA
3. Pavel Alpeyev”グーグルが月面無人探査レース、賞金25億円−日本チームも参戦”at Bloomberg
4. Wikipedia:月の植民
5.MARK PRIGG FOR DAILYMAIL.COM “The final countdown for Mars One: 100 remaining candidates for controversial one way trip to undergo 'intense' testing” 20160606
6. Mars One
7. Mars One Webshop
8. “火星コロニー構想、スペースXのマスク氏発表 「楽しい旅」に”at YAHOO! JAPAN ニュース 20160928
9. 米山 慎吾“マーズワンの火星移住計画2025年に4人?プロジェクトの評判が?”at 40’s Exchange Hack 20160208
10. 火星の植民 - Wikipedia
11. “驚愕!!2021年には宇宙エレベータで宇宙へ行ける!!のか?”at NAVER まとめ
12.No.69 宇宙旅行のコスト
13. 石井 英男”宇宙エレベーターが実現する「2050年宇宙の旅」” at TELESCOPE Magazine 2013
14. ケンタウルス座アルファ星 - Wikipedia
15. moonrainbouw”宇宙への旅人 太陽系は高速で移動している!”
16.Caterina Visco”ダイヤモンドでできた惑星”at WIRED

65 Space Travel #SpaceTravel

65 Space Travel #SpaceTravel

65−1 The Wall of Time
At a rate of traditional space ship it takes
・5 months to Mars. [1](It takes 2.6 years to round trip due to the revolution of the Earth and Mars.)
・20 to 30 years to out of Solar System
・30,000 years to go to our nearest neighbouring star, Alpha Centauri (distance: four light years). [1]

⇒Human colonization of other planets will be achieved by intelligent machines consisting of mechanical and electronic components.- Stephen William Hawking

⇒If humans are required, it will be reproduced from the DNA information. [2]

※Maximum speed of the vehicle, which was invented by human is 111km / s in the Apollo 10. [3]

65−2 A New System:Laser-Powered Engine
:Propulsion of spacecraft is obtained by irradiation of the laser to the sail. (Use of Solar wind is also possible)
:The system can propel spacecraft to 30% of lightspeed. [1]
:This could get a 100 kilogram robotic craft to Mars in three days.( A craft occupied by humans would take slightly longer -- but at a month.) [1]

・Energy source
・It is necessary to install the base on the planet orbit.
・There is a need also to set up a base on the arrival point for deceleration.

Lightspeed=300,000km / s

○Development status of laser propulsion system
1973−1975 Mariner 10(USA) which flew by the planets Mercury and Venus demonstrated the use of solar pressure as a method ofattitude control in order to conserve attitude-control propellant. [4] [5]
2010 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the world's first interplanetary solar sail spacecraft"IKAROS" (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) to Venus. [4]
2015 Light Sail-A (The Planetary Society) was successfully tested to deploy a solar sail.
2016  The Team of Stephen Hawking and Yuri Milner proposed making a journey to Alpha Centauri.(⇒No.65−5)

IKAROS== Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun(JAXA

65−3 Antimatter Spaceship [6]
・Causing the "annihilation" of positrons and electrons to get the driving force of the spacecraft.
・Expected to be 40% of the speed of light.
・10 years to go to our nearest neighbouring star, Alpha Centauri (distance: about 4 light years).

・To save antimatter is not possible with current technology (1g antimatter is the same destructive power as an atomic bomb).
・The anti-hydrogen required for the journey towards the nearest star is about 17g, but the cost of making the antimatter 1g is about 1,000 billion$.

65−4 Planet Type Spacecraft
○For long-term space travel of humans, we must have Planet type spacecrafts.
※ Planet type spacecraft;PTS:Which is a Spacecraft Modified a Planet for ultra-long-term space travel.

65−5 Plans to Build Interstellar Spacecraft:Breakthough Starshot [7]
○April 2016  The Team of Stephen Hawking and Yuri Milner proposed making a journey to Alpha Centauri.
○The craft(Nanocraft) will have a solar sail, a few meters across and weighing a few grams.
○And the craft will reach 20% of the speed of light within 10 minutes—fast enough to reach Alpha Centauri(distance: about 4 light years) in 20 years.

※Nanocraft:The spacecraft (dubbed a StarChip), would be a very small centimeter-sized vehicle weighing a few grams. The camera, computer, communications laser, a plutonium power source, photon thrusters and the solar sail (4 by 4 meters) must be miniaturized to fit within a mass limit. They would be propelled by a square-kilometre array of 10 kW ground-based lasers with a combined output of up to 100 GW. [8]

※StarChip + Lightsail:Nanocraft [9]

※StarChip [10]

○All components must be engineered to endure extreme acceleration, cold, vacuum, and protons.
○The team calculates the laser technology will be ready in a few decades’ time. (Energy source is nuclear fusion.(⇒No.67 Fusion Power))
○ In this plan, the spacecraft will cross Alpha Centaurs in a few minutes. [10]
○ The cost is $ 10 billion.

レーザー推進システム [9]

○By the way, Alpha Centauri is to close to 3 light-years after approximately 25,000 years .

65−6 Level of Space Travel
 Level1 Rocket
 Level2 Spaceship Earth ⇒No.71−2 Move the Earth = Spaceship Earth
 Level3 Starship ⇒No.80 Starship Solar-System(SSS) 
Level4 Transporter
Level5 Warp ⇒No.82 Black holes are exits to the another universe?

1. Nasa's laser-powered engine could get us to Mars in 72 hours
2. No.39 Brain
3. Un kickstarter per sviluppare il motore ad antimateria(ITALIA)
4. Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) - Wikipedia
5. Mariner 10
6. New and Improved Antimatter Spaceship for Mars Missions
7. Science News
8. Breakthrough Starshot - Wikipedia
9. LIVE: Stephen Hawking and Yuri Milner to announce space exploration initiative “Starshot”
10. Will Starshot's Insterstellar Journey Succeed?

【Change log】
20170522 Addition of materials to No.65−5 Plans to Build Interstellar Spacecraft:Breakthough Starshot

65 宇宙旅行 #宇宙旅行

65 宇宙旅行 #宇宙旅行

65−1 時間の壁




65−2 新推進システム:レーザー推進システム

光速=300,000km / s

1973〜1975年 Mariner 10(米)が太陽風を推力に利用。[6]
2010年 IKAROS(実証機)は、ソーラーセイルによる光子加速を実証し、同年12月に金星フライバイに成功。[7]
2015年 ソーラーセイル宇宙船の実験機「ライトセイルA」(惑星協会(※(The Planetary Society)))が、太陽帆を展開するテストに成功。[8]
2016年 スティーブン・ホーキングとユーリ・ミルナーが約4光年離れた一番近い恒星(ケンタウルス座アルファ星)の探査計画を発表(⇒No.65−5)

IKAROS== Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun(JAXA

65−3 反物質ロケット [4]


65−4 星船 [9]

1) 丈夫な殻を持つ。・・・必ずしも堅い必要はない。
2) 放射線を遮断する。
3) 重力を得る。


65−5 恒星探査計画ブレークスルー・スターショット(Breakthough Starshot) [10]
2016年4月 スティーブン・ホーキングとユーリ・ミルナー達が約4光年離れた一番近い恒星(ケンタウルス座アルファ星)の探査計画を発表。

※Nanocraft:重さ数グラムの切手サイズの超小型宇宙船「スターチップ(StarChip)」(カメラ、コンピュータ通信レーザープルトニウム電源、ソーラーセイル、光子スラスタ、ナビゲーションが搭載される)に1辺が4メートルほどの極薄の帆(Lightsail:Solarsail)を取り付け、地上からこの帆に向かってレーザー(100GW beam)を照射する。[11]

※StarChip + Lightsail:Nanocraft [12]

※StarChip [13]


レーザー推進システム [12]


65−6 宇宙旅行のレベル
レベル1 ロケット宇宙船
レベル2 宇宙船地球号 ⇒ No.71−2 地球を動かす計画宇宙船地球号
レベル3 星船 ⇒ No.80 星船=宇宙船太陽系
レベル4 転送装置
レベル5 ワープ ⇒ No.82 別な宇宙の出入り口:ワームホール

【参 照】
1. NASAレーザー推進なら、火星に3日で到達できる。
2. 火星往復が3ヵ月、プラズマビームの新推進システム
3. No.39 脳
4. 宇宙旅行を実現する「反物質エンジン」
5. 宇宙探査機のためのレーザー基地衛星
6. Mariner 10
7. 太陽帆(たいようほ、ソーラーセイル)- Wikipedia
8. ソーラーセイル宇宙船「ライトセイル」が宇宙で太陽帆の展開に成功
9. 恒星船 - Wikipedia
10. AFP BB ニュース
11.ブレークスルー・スターショット – Wikipedia
12. LIVE: Stephen Hawking and Yuri Milner to announce space exploration initiative “Starshot”
13. Will Starshot's Insterstellar Journey Succeed?
14. “20年でアルファ・ケンタウリに探査機到達を目指すプロジェクト”. Wired. 2016年4月18日

20170522 No.65−5 恒星探査計画ブレークスルー・スターショットへの資料追加

2018-01-20 62 よい環境を選ぶ #人生

64 Planets Like the Earth #SpaceTravel

64 Planets Like the Earth #SpaceTravel

○August 24, 2016 The European Southern Observatory(ESO) released [1]
・European scientists announced the discovery of an Earth-sized world(Proxima b) around the closest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri.
・The planet of Earth's size was confirmed in habitable zone.

※Image of Proxima b [1]

【Previous News】
1.April 17, 2014 NASA released [2]
・Discovered planet (Kepler 186f) is about 500 light years from Earth at a distance. Its
size is about 1.1 times of Earth's. It rotates around the star similar to the Sun by over 130 days.
・This is the first time that Planet of Earth's size is confirmed in habitable zone.

※The Goldilocks planet is the planet which is in the habitable planets and which is similar to Earth in terms of the size and other. Kepler 186f that has been recently discovered is Goldilocks planet.

2.December 05, 2011 NASA released [3]
・Discovered planet (Kepler 22b) is about 600 light years from Earth at a distance. Its size is about 2.4 times of Earth's. It rotates around the star similar to the Sun by over 290 days, and the planet's surface temperature is about 22 degrees.

1.ERIC BERGER” It’s true—the closest star to the Sun harbors an Earth-sized planet”at arstechnica.com
2. National Geographic News
3. National Geographic News

【Change log】
20170324 Addition of tha image of Proxima b

64 地球のような惑星 #宇宙旅行

64 地球のような惑星 #宇宙旅行

2016年8月24日 ヨーロッパ南天天文台(ESO)発表 [1]

プロキシマbのイメージ [1]

1. 2014年4月17日 NASA=アメリカ航空宇宙局発表 [2]

ハビタブルゾーンにある惑星をハビタブル惑星(Habitable planet)、またその中でも特に地球とサイズ等が近い惑星はゴルディロックス惑星(Goldilocks planet)と呼ぶ。

2. 2011年12月5日 NASA=アメリカ航空宇宙局発表 [3]

【参 照】
1. ERIC BERGER”発見された「地球に似た惑星」について、いまわかっていること”at WIRED 20160826
2.ナショナルジオグラフィック ニュース
3.ナショナルジオグラフィック ニュース

20170324 プロキシマbのイメージの追加

63 The Ultimate Disaster=Escape Earth! #SpaceTravel

63 The Ultimate Disaster=Escape Earth! #SpaceTravel

○Future of the Earth [1]
・1 billion years later, more than 10% increase in solar luminosity.

※Earth and sun after 1 billion years[2]

・2 billion years later, the Earth's ocean has dried up!
・3 billion years later, our Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy collide!
(Possibility of collision of the sun and other stars is low if the two galaxies collide )
・5 billion years later  The sun has become a red giant. 

⇒Mankind will no longer be able to cling to the earth.

☆If it do not have the intention to protect it's own safety by its own force, and even the any intelligence body, it is not possible to expect a future.

※In addition, there is also a theory that the universe will continue to expand forever, since it would fully cooled, in a few trillion years, mankind is a need to escape from this universe. [3]

1. AstroArts  What happens, the distant future of the solar system
2.Ken Pilon at 123rf.com
3.Michio Kaku / New York incandescent classroom " Amazing prophecy of "Theory of Everything;TOE"" 20150403
4.History of Humanity
1.7 million years ago  Human beings born
0.5 million years ago  Peking man
230,000 years ago    Emergence of Neanderthals(Homo sapiens)
200,000 〜190,000 years ago  Emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens
100,000 years ago〜 Modern humans (Homo sapiens) were spread out of the Africa.
70,000 years ago 〜  The last ice age
10,000 years ago   The end of the last ice age

【Change log】
20170324 Add Earth and sun after 1 billion years

63 究極の防災=地球脱出!? #宇宙旅行

63 究極の防災地球脱出!? #宇宙旅行

地球の未来 [1]






【参 考】
1. AstroArts どうなる、太陽系の遠い未来
2. 16.Ken Pilon at 123rf.com
3. NAVER 地球の寿命
4. ミチオ・カク/ニューヨーク白熱教室「『万物の理論』の驚くべき予言」20150403
5. 人類の歴史
170万年前    人類誕生
50万年前   北京原人
23万年前   ネアンデルタール人ホモ・サピエンス)の出現。
約20万〜19万年前 新人(ホモ・サピエンス・サピエンス)の出現。
10万年前〜  現代人がアフリカを出た。
7万年前〜   最終氷期
1万年前〜   最終氷期の終わり/農耕・定住生活

20170324 10億年後の地球と太陽の追加

62 Select good environment for your growth #Life

62 Select good environment for your growth #Life

○Since we tend to follow the influence of others or environment, we have to choose the environment of being able to be subject to good influence.

○Both bad habits and good habits infect from person to person.
【Resource】Kelly McGonigal "The Willpower Instinct"

○Running away is a shame, but useful. – Hungarian proverb (meaning) Choose your battles.

【Change log】
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62 よい環境を選ぶ #人生


○ よい習慣も悪い習慣も、人から人へと感染する。


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61 Self Control #Life #brain

61 Self Control #Life #brain

61−1 “The Willpower Instinct”Kelly McGonigal is consulted very much.
The phrase with which I am pleased is as follows.
○Self-control can be demonstrated if you breathe slowly. (p.92)
○Movement, sleep, and relaxation become willpower strengthening. (Second Chapter)
○If it has fallen, it will become easy to lose temptation. It can have confidence, if a guilty feeling is wiped away. (p.232)
○Even if it fails, let's have consideration to ourselves. Then, it is avoidable to repeat failure out of a guilty feeling. (p.232)
○It is an opposite effect that thinking, feeling, and desire tend to be suppressed, and when it does so, the thing which you want to surely avoid on the contrary will be considered, felt or performed.
○We will overcome the wave of thinking, feeling, and desire by recollecting the target which can be absorbed, or acting toward the target which is really important for itself. (Chapter 9)

61−2 Coping to solve personal problems
61−2−1 Overview
○In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress orconflict.
○In personal, coping regains the control of the frontal lobe to the amygdala.

※Amygdala:Amygdala modulates all of our reactions to events that are very important for our survival by secretion of cortisol:a kind of adrenal cortex hormone.
※Of cortisol excess causes the atrophy of the hippocampus of the brain. This atrophy becomes the cause of depression and dementia.

Images are generated by Life Science Databases(LSDB). - from Anatomography, website maintained by Life Science

61−2−2 Method
Common distinctions of coping strategies are made between contrasting strategies for example: problem-focused versus emotion-focused.
○ As a way to reduce stress by self-control, there is a method to execute when you feel stress a list of actions to reduce the stress that was created in advance.

<List of action (for example)>・・・You need to be prepared as much as possible.

See clouds and stars
Listen to song
See flowers
Smell the favorite one
Think about the lottery
Physical intimacy [1]
Receive a relaxation service
Helping people
Mindfulness [2]
Chatting with friends
Watch TV
Cut your hair
Shave your beard
Brush teeth
Wash your face
Care of eyebrows
Nose pack

61−3 Freedom
○Freedom is to control instinct and emotion.

1. Massage for secretion of oxytocin [3]. For example, the back massage for 10 minutes. Hug also is good. ( To continue for a week or more)
2. The mindfulness there is also a normal effect of growth of the hippocampus and amygdala.
<Simple mindfulness>
15 minutes. Close your eyes to focus on breathing. (Anything rather than do not think, to focus only on what is happening now in sight.) ・・・May sleep.

61 自己コントロール #人生 #脳

61 自己コントロール #人生 #脳

61−1 「自分を変える教室ケリー・マクゴニガル
○呼吸を遅らせれば自制心を発揮できる。 (p.92)

61−2 コーピング(Coping):ストレス低減法
61−2−1 概要


Images are generated by Life Science Databases(LSDB). - from Anatomography, website maintained by Life Science

61−2−2 方法


タッチケア [1]
リラクゼーション・サービスを受ける [2]

61−3 自由

【参 照】
1. タッチケア:体に触れたり触れられたりするとオキシトシンが出ることを利用して、痛みや高血圧・認知症を軽減する方法。(毎日10分、1週間以上続けること)
3. 海馬の成長・扁桃体の正常化効果もある。

60 Praise Yourself and Others/Unleash Your Brain Power 5 #Life #brain

60 Praise Yourself and Others/Unleash Your Brain Power 5 #Life #brain

・The 4th way to foster neural positive is "to praise oneself and others".
・Human is animal that can reflect.
・You blame yourself or someone else when you regret.
・To blame is into practice and becomes a habit.
・Since this habit inhibits the development of positive neural circuits , we need prevention it.
・To make it a habit to praise yourself and others every day inoder to unleash your brain power.
・When people are praised, they become happy, and brain power will be released.

【Change log】
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60 自分と他人を褒める/脳力の解放5 #人生 #脳

60 自分と他人を褒める/脳力の解放5 #人生 #脳

・ ポジティブな神経回路を養成する第4の方法は「自分と他人を褒める」ことだ。

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59 Not too Greedy/Unleash Your Brain Power 4 #Life #brain

59 Not too Greedy/Unleash Your Brain Power 4 #Life #brain

・The third way to train positive neural circuit is "not too greedy".
・If you are too greedy, field of your view becomes narrow.
・When this condition continues your feeling ends up atrophy, and you can not seen fun which is everywhere.
・From here, the training of negative neural circuit starts.
・So beware of "too greedy"

☆Human is mass of greed. We are human.

○ Proverb:Too much is as bad as too little.

【Change log】
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59 欲張り過ぎない/脳力の解放4 #人生 #脳

59 欲張り過ぎない/脳力の解放4 #人生 #脳

・ ポジティブな神経回路を養成する第3の方法は「もっともっとと欲張り過ぎない」ことだ。
・ もっともっとと欲張り過ぎるとどうでもいいことにこだわるのと同じように視野が狭くなる。
・ 心の視野が狭い状態が続くと、心が萎縮し、いたるところにあるはずの楽しみが見えなくなる。
・ ここからネガティブな神経回路の養成が始まる。

○「にんげん我慾のかたまり にんげんのわたし」相田みつを(1924-1991)


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58 Independence/Unleash Your Brain Power3 #Life #brain

58 Independence/Unleash Your Brain Power3 #Life #brain

58−1 Independence
○“It is experience precious to a young person to notice "a difference between oneself and the others." It becomes the cause to go to independence. However, regrettably many people will go to dependence with reverse independence. By uniting with familiar someone, they try to negate loneliness.
The object of their dependence is a sweetheart, the best friend, or a family. Those dependence is only the means for curing one's loneliness. Therefore, the self-centered action which disregards a partner's character and goes to monopolize thoroughly is seen frequently. Or they lose themselves completely and are under the partner's thumb.
It can be said that it is just manifestation of dependence, if they would like to meet their partner every day, or desire to be together always, or want to monopolize their partner. Even if the wish is filled temporarily, it never lasts long. Because their partner are different existence from them, and they are another characters.”
“When it is in dependency, the leading role of your life is not yourself. The partner for dependence is the leading role of your life, and is governing your life. With independence, we become the leading role of our life.”・・・” Anyway, a dream cannot be realized while you have been weak lonely. That everybody take over loneliness and try hard towards realization of a dream makes possible the better human relations which respect mutual character.“

Original text: Shigeki Suwa『援助者のためのコミュニケーション人間関係 第2版』建帛社

○Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life.
Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking.
Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.
And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition.  −Steve Jobs(1955-2011)

○The friendship between the wise men is light like water. ―Chuang-tzu (B.C.552-B.C.472)

58−2 Unleash Your Brain Power3
・The second way to train positive neural for unlock your originally brain power without having to atrophy is not rely on others.
・The reliance on others is withering the emotions insidiously.
・Even if you go to temples and shrines or a church, and wish only your happiness and fortunes, the Buddha and God will only get bored.
・For unleash of your brain power , it is good to think about not your thing but the surrounding person, and to ask the happiness for the person of the world, if you can do.
・But you don't need to do all of your work, everyday life, etc. by yourself.
・If you do not assign but continue only miscellaneous business, your feeling will shrink.
・You should be advanced work, housekeeping, etc. valuing teamwork and communication and borrowing a surrounding person's power.
・After all, in order to set your brain's ability free, the posture in which it does not depend on other things is required.
・If you do not depend on other things and have a margin to sympathize with the others, your brain power will be enleashed.

【Change log】
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58 自立/脳力の解放3 #人生 #脳

58 自立/脳力の解放3 #人生 #脳

58−1 自立

原典:諏訪茂樹『援助者のためのコミュニケーション人間関係 第2版』建帛社


○孤独は、創造を業とする者には、神が創造の才能を与えた代償とでも考えたのかと思うほどに、一生ついてまわる宿命である。 塩野 七生「ユリウス・カエサルルビコン以降[中] (p.115)


○『愛するものと一緒に暮らすには一つの秘訣がいる。すなわち相手を変えようとしないことだ。気にさわる彼女の欠点を直そうとすると、忽ち彼女の幸せまで破壊することになるからだ』【ジャック・シャルドンヌ (1884-1968)】

58−2 脳力の解放3

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57 Really Important Thing? /Unleash Your Brain Power2 #Life #brain

57 Really Important Thing? /Unleash Your Brain Power2 #Life #brain

・How do you train a positive neural circuit?
・At first you never picky cares.

・In Mature society, the chances of success are less than growth society. The opportunity to acquire money, a status, and honor may decrease for most persons, however they may do their best, it will become difficult to obtain them.
・Then, if you are going to adhere to what is not and are going to live, your view will become narrow.
・If the state continues, you will disappear the pleasure which must be everywhere, and your heart will shrink.
・Cultivation of a negative circuit begins from here.
・In short, don't be attached to "what is not."
・If you understand that getting money, a status, honor, etc is impossible, don't be attached to them.
・Instead, be attached to "what existing."
・Change your mind to value your really important matter, your ability, etc. And develop them.
・Let's train your positive neural circuit and set free the brain's ability equipped from the first!

【Change log】
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57 本当に大事なことは?/脳力の解放2 #人生 #脳

57 本当に大事なことは?/脳力の解放2 #人生 #脳

・ ポジティブな神経回路って、どうやって養成したらいいのだろう?

・ 成熟社会では、成長社会よりも成功するチャンスは少なくなる。大半の人にとって、お金や地位や名誉を得る機会が減り、どうがんばっても、それらを得ることが難しくなる。
・ その時、無いものにこだわって生きようとすると視野が狭くなる。
・ 視野の狭い状態が続くと、いたるところにあるはずの楽しみが見えなくなり、心が萎縮してしまう。
・ ここからネガティブな回路の養成が始まる。
・ お金や地位や名誉などが、手に入れることが無理と分かったら、こだわらないこと。
・ その代わり、「有るもの」にこだわるのだ。
・ 自分にとって本当に大事なこと、自分の得意なことなどを大切にしたり、伸ばしたりすることに気持ちを切り替えるのだ。
・ ポジティブな神経回路を養成して、もともと備わっている脳力を解き放ちましょう!

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56 Training of Positive Neural/Unleash Your Brain Power 1 #Life #brain

56 Training of Positive Neural/Unleash Your Brain Power 1 #Life #brain

○"Brain decides happiness!"

Source: Marci Shimoff [Author] Kenichiro Mogi [Not] "Do it just "good for the brain" " Publisher Mikasa Shobo (p.2)

・According to this book by repeated the same thing, neural circuitry of the brain
will be strengthened.
・And these "negative" things are firmly memorized by the neural circuit, and a "positive" things are hard to be memorized.
・In modern society with much stress that is going to simple society from growth society, if nothing is done, a "negative" neural circuit will be strengthened in a brain and a "positive" neural circuit will become overwhelmingly inferior in strength.
・Then, it is necessary to train being conscious of a "positive" neural circuit.

○Happiness depends upon ourselves. −Aristotle(B.C.384 – B.C.322)

☆ If you want to become positive, train the upper body.

【Change log】
20170324 Addition of a photo

56 ポジティブな神経回路の養成/脳力の解放1 #人生 #脳

56 ポジティブな神経回路の養成/脳力の解放1 #人生 #脳


出典:マーシー・シャイモフ [著]・茂木健一郎[訳]「「脳にいいこと」だけをやりなさい!」三笠書房(p.2)

・ そこで、「ポジティブ」な神経回路を意識して養成することが必要になってくる。

○幸せかどうかは、自分次第である。−アリストテレス(B.C.384 – B.C.322)


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55 Growth with Pleasure #Life

55 Growth with Pleasure #Life

・To live is to grow up as an intellect object.
・However it is necessary to warn against growth-stopping or shrinking.
・For that purpose, you have to find the theme to which life may be applied.
・And don't forget to praise yourself and others.

【Change log】
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55 一瞬一瞬を楽しみながら成長を続けること #人生

55 一瞬一瞬を楽しみながら成長を続けること #人生


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54 Positive Thinking  #Life

54 Positive Thinking  #Life

・An ordinary man must never blame himself.
・For common people to blame himself is like making the other enemy. As a result, everything becomes impossible increasingly.
・The brain works well when optimistic. 

・Then, I send "a murmur."

Don't blame yourself.
But even you are small.
If you won't stop to blame, you'll be flour.

☆Think positive, do it positive, be positive!

【Change log】
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54 ポジティブ思考 #人生

54 ポジティブ思考 #人生


・「脳は楽観的でないとうまく働いてくれない。」茂木 健一郎




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53 About Suicide #Life

53 About Suicide #Life

• The non-human animals try desperately to live until the last minute.
・Your body also wants to live.
・But why there would be persons who commit suicide?

・When I thinking about that on the home of the station while in the time of a little depressed feeling, sometimes I feel fear that I might jump on impulse into the running train.
・My body does not hope I would die. My families do not think such a thing even dream of. Some people who might get annoyed by suicide do not expect such a thing.

・I know, my heart at such time is small.
・Therefore, if I die then, I will die with the small heart.

・Probably it is doing of a brain and the developed frontal lobe.

・The mechanism of dying if people's mind becomes small.
・Why is there such mechanism?

・The reason for having made specially the mechanism "die if it becomes small"
・Although it seems that it is cruel ...
・It may be a message "grow up greatly" from the universe.

Over 800,000 people die due to suicide every year. 75% of global suicide occurred in low- and middle-income countries. Suicide was the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year olds globally in 2012.

【参 照】Suicide data(WHO)

53 自殺について #人生

53 自殺について #人生







世界では毎年80万人が自殺しており、世界の自殺の75%は低中所得国で起こり、各国で自殺は死因の10位以内に入り、特に15〜29歳の年代では2位になっている(WHO 2012年)
【参 照】Suicide data(WHO)