スタジオグーダ!(Studio Gooda!)


40 Growing Artificial Intelligence(GAI) #Intelligence

40 Growing Artificial Intelligence(GAI) #Intelligence

40−1 What is a thinking artificial intelligence?
・A thinking artificial intelligence can write programs on acquired and can determine a good or bad of the programs.

☆In order to provide a learning and creative abilities comparable to the brain in artificial intelligence, it is necessary to incorporate a growing system or to impart a large margin.

☆Comparable to the brain is growing artificial intelligence(GAI).
☆Growing artificial intelligence(GAI) is a complex of brain and artificial intelligence.
・GAI will be composed of DNA and IC chip.
・ Because the brain is the most advanced structures in the universe.

40−2 Road to GAI
40−2−1 Learning and intuition [1]
・By combining the mechanism of reinforcement learning and Bayesian network learning, the computer autonomously learn the program without a teacher.
Computer with Bayesian network that has been subjected to simple extension will have the same function as intuition.

40−2−2 AI
・In computational neuroscience, there is a theory that we can explain statistically about the main features of the cerebral cortex(:recognize the situation of the external world and learn).
・According to this theory, in the neural circuits of the cerebral cortex, the method( for optimal choice by probability calculation or estimation) that is less than the amount of calculation which is performed with current computer is done.
・Computational speed of supercomputers is already beyond the brain.
・It is said that after 10-20 years there is a possibility that small computers with the ability to achieve human-like recognition and learning are there.

【Reference】「大脳皮質ベイジアンネット」Ischisugi Yuuji

40−2−3 Quantum mind [2]
British mathematician, astrophysics and theoretical physicist Roger Penrose (Roger Penrose, 1931-) has presented the hypothesis that there is deep relationship between information processing and quantum mechanics in the brain.
He says, basic and simple unknown attributes that becomes the original of a consciousness has been associated in each elementary particles. When the wave function is contracted in microtubules of neuron, at the same time the unknown attribute combines on, and high level consciousness of the organism occurs.

40−2−4 Quantum computer
Quantum computer make direct use of quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital computers based on transistors. Whereas digital computers require data to be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits (qubits), which can be insuperpositions of states.
This parallel processing, it is can be solved in a few tens of seconds in calculation which can not be solved even if it takes thousands of years in the current super computer. [3]

【Reference】Wikipedia/ Quantum computing

○ Quantum computer of D-Wave Systems (Canada) [4]
This computer is not the one by the quantum circuit using a quantum gate, this computer is implemented an optimization algorithm by quantum annealing (QA).
The basic element of this computer is a superconducting closed circuit, this circuit is using whether on the circuit superconducting current turn to the left or the right. Since the turning of the current is uncertain until measure, the quantum mechanical superposition (the state neither left nor right) is realized.

Since the operation of this circuit does not consume little power, the power consumption associated with the increase in computing power ( for peripherals to shield superconductor circuit from the external magnetic field and to keep the temperature close to absolute zero) does not increase so much.
This is a major difference between conventional computer based on semiconductor technology.

Photo: The chip of D-Wave (128 qubits)

※ D-Wave, Inc. has published a list of the technical literature on the web site. [5]

※Quantum annealing is known to be equivalent with a calculation method by quantum gates theoretically. [6]

40−3 Meeting with non-life intelligence! [7]
If consciousness is due to the attributes of the elementary particles, with the advancement of quantum computers, AI also might have Consciousness!

☆ This is slightly different from the theory of Penrose.
☆It is unknown whether consciousness is due to the attributes of the elementary particles (as Penrosu say) .
☆ Now, I can say, that there is a possibility that GAIs will have true consciousness!

1.産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)
2.The writings of Roger Penrose
" The Emperor's New Mind "1989
"The Large,The Small and The Human Mind"1994
3. Quantum computing - Wikipedia
4. D-Wave Systems - Wikipedia
5. D-Wave
6. 西森 秀稔Hidetoshi Nishimori/量子アニーリングとD-Wave
7. No.36 What is Consciousness?

40 成長する人工知能(GAI) #知性

40 成長する人工知能(GAI) #知性

40−1 思考する人工知能とは?


☆脳に匹敵するのは、成長できる人工知能(Growing artificial intelligence; GAI)ということになる。

40−2 GAIへの道
40−2−1 学習と直感 [1]

40−2−2 AI
・ 脳の計算速度については、すでにスーパーコンピューターで実現されている。
・ 10〜20年後には、小型計算機で人間に近い認識・学習能力を持つ知能が実現する可能性があるそうだ。


40−2−3 量子脳理論[2]
イギリス数学者宇宙物理学・理論物理学者ロジャー・ペンローズ(Roger Penrose, 1931- )は、著書『皇帝の新しい心』(1989)にて、脳内の情報処理には量子力学が深く関わっているという仮説を提示している。

40−2−4 量子コンピュータ
概要:従来のコンピュータでは、情報は0か1に置き換えることのできるビットを扱うものであるのに対して、量子コンピュータでは量子ビット (qubit; quantum bit、キュービット) により、1キュービットにつき0と1の値を任意の割合で重ね合わせて同時に(並列的に)扱うことができる。

○D-Wave Systems(カナダ)の量子コンピュータ[4]
量子ゲートを使った量子回路によるコンピュータではなく、量子アニーリング量子焼きなまし法(quantum annealing、略称: QA))による最適化アルゴリズムを実装している。

この回路による演算は、ほとんど電力を消費しないため,演算能力が大きくなっても消費電力(超伝導回路を外部磁場から遮蔽するとともに, 絶対零度に近い温度に保つための周辺装置)はそれほど増えない。これは,半導体技術に基づく通常の計算機との大きな違いである。




量子コンピュータの方式と主な開発組織 [7]
Copyright © 2006-2015 Nikkei Business Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

40−3 非生命体知性との出会い![8]

【参 考】
1.産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)
3. 量子コンピュータ - Wikipedia
4.D-Wave Systems - Wikipedia
6.西森 秀稔Hidetoshi Nishimori/量子アニーリングとD-Wave
7. 日経ビジネス量子コンピュータ開発が加速、用途は人工知能
8.No.36 意識とは?

39 Brain #Intelligence

39 Brain #Intelligence

39−1 For the growth of brain
○Unnecessary connections of nerve cells in the human brain is removed rapidly when it comes to 11-year-old. Then, the signal is transmitted earlier by nerve becomes thick (development of myelin sheath), so that the brain becomes possible to perform processing efficiently.
○Myelination of the prefrontal cortex continues actively until about 25 years old.
○Brain can change by training. = It is possible to change your character.
This is the method.
1. Positive thinking = Shake off the negative thoughts.
2. Do it positive.
3. Control your life.
4. Continue it easy.・・・Because it’s not easy.
【Reference】Elaine Fox

☆The brain is the growing connectome!
... The brain is not only the fact that the most advanced structures in the universe, even it grow!

A connectome[1] [2] is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system.
The production and study of connectomes, known as connectomics, may range in scale from a detailed map of the full set of neurons and synapses within part or all of the nervous system of an organism to a macro scale description of the functional and structural connectivity between all cortical areas and subcortical structures. The term "connectome" is used primarily in scientific efforts to capture, map, and understand the organization of neural interactions within the brain.

☆Comparable to the brain is growing artificial intelligence(GAI).
☆ Growing artificial intelligence(GAI) is a complex of brain and artificial intelligence.
☆Because the brain is the most advanced structures in the universe.
☆ One human role is to pump GAI into the universe!

39−2 Features of the brain
○Features of the brain is learning and creativity.

○In the cerebral cortex, there are functions of Bayesian network, Self-organizing map, Independent component analysis, Reinforcement learning. [3]

※Bayesian network:It is a technique for making inferences based on probabilistic efficiently. And it acts similar to intuition, which is one of the functions of the brain. It is a technology that is the key to understanding of information processing principles of the brain. [3]
・It has based on Bayes' theorem, which was discovered in 1763 by British pastor Thomas Bayes (1702 (?) - 1761).
※Self-organizing map:It is a neural network algorithm of unsupervised proposed by T. Kohonen.
※Independent component analysis:It is a calculation method for separating a signal of multivariate into additive components. A typical application is the sound source separation to extract the voice of a specific person from a plurality of human conversation, which was recorded in a room.
Reinforcement learning:It is learning to adapt to the environment through trial and error.

39−3 Cerebral cortex
○ The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue. The human cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres thick. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. [4]
○The most recent part of the cerebral cortex to develop in the evolutionary history of mammals is the neocortex (also called isocortex), which differentiated into six horizontal layers; the more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, has at most three cellular layers. [4]
○ In the human brain more than two-thirds of the cerebral cortex is buried in the sulci(groove or fissure). [4]
○A Brodmann area is a region of the cerebral cortex, in the human or other primate brain, defined by its cytoarchitecture, or histological structure and organization of cells. He divided the human cerebral cortex into 52 areas (fields).

※Cerebral cortex [5]

○About 50 areas are connected to each other to create a hierarchical network. [6]
(In the case of visual stimulation: primary visual cortex → secondary visual cortex → hippocampus • prefrontal cortex)
○The upper level of the hierarchy represents more abstract information. [6]
○Individual areas are aggregates of macro columns, and macro columns are collections of mini columns. [6]
・Macro columns:500 μm in diameter, 1 million pieces
・Mini column:50 μm, 100 million pieces

※Structure of cerebral cortex [7]

39−3−1 Frontal lobe
○The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex. The dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. [8]

○The left frontal lobe performs logical matters such as letters and words. [9]
○The right frontal lobe instantly intuitively and comprehensively recognizes and judges external information. [9]

○Suppression of emotion, language and motor function change with frontal lobe lesions.

39−3−2 Limbic system
○ Limbic system is a collective term such as amygdala, hippocampus, mammiliary body.
○ The role of limbic system is memory (short-term memory and long-term memory), emotion, motivation and intuition.
○ Limbic system has a strong relationship with the olfactory function.

※ Limbic system [10]

○The amygdala body acts excessively and stress hormone (cortisol) is released in response to stress, such as strong and long anxiety, fear and tension. [11]
○By cortisol, hippocampal neurons are destroyed (inhibiting neurogenesis) and the hippocampus is atrophied. [12] In posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression patients, hippocampal atrophy is confirmed. [13]
○The stronger the stress received as a child, the more it tends to become the amygdala become bigger. When the amygdala body grows larger, it responds to small stress. [14]
○Alzheimer disease (AD) develops from atrophy of the hippocampus and causes atrophy (protein aggregation) of a part of the frontal lobe. [15]

○Coping: Repeating measures while firmly recognizing stress can activate the frontal lobe and suppress the activity of the amygdala. [16] [17]
○Recovery of the hippocampus and reduction of the amygdala have been confirmed even in mindfulness that aims consciousness of the body and respiratory sense without thinking about the past and the future. [17] [18]
○The action of genes secreting nerve growth factor "VGF" is activated by exercise. [19]
○Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland by massage also calms the excitement of the amygdala. [20]

Nucleus accumbens produces GABA, a transmitter of "motivation".[21]
※The nucleus accumbens is often described as one part of a cortico–basal ganglia–thalamic loop.

Nucleus accumbens [22]

39−3−3 Oxytocin, Endorphins, Dopamine
○As far as the basic emotional mechanism is concerned, there is no big change in humans and other primates.

39−3−3−1 The effect of three hormones
・The positive effects of upping oxytocin are most likely because oxytocin supports your brain's serotonin, the feel good neurochemical. Many serotonin producing neurons also have oxytocin receptors; when oxytocin is released, serotonin gets a boost too. Plus, oxytocin also calms the reactivity of the amygdala, the fear center of your brain, and strengthens its communication with brain circuits that help you control emotions. [23]

・Endorphins are sedative and analgesic hormone that acts on the brain's reward system 6.5 times as much as morphine. Endorphins are the abbreviation of endogenous morphine, named endorphin, because it causes the same action as morphine.
・Endorphins are secreted at important parts of the whole body.
・Endorphins normalize autonomic nerves.
・In addition, endorphins increase T cells, B cells and NK cells (natural killer cells), which are immune cells.

・Dopamine is involved in the remuneration system, and plays an important role in motivation, learning, memory, etc. [24] In extreme terms, humans live for the purpose of secretion of dopamine.
・Dopamine has a role of suppressing motor nerves. (Acetylcholine promotes excitement)

39−3−3−2 Where are the hormons secreted from?
○Oxytocin and endorphins are secreted from the hypothalamus.
○Dopamine is secreted from the substantia nigra dense part(A9) and the ventral donning field(A10).

※Dopaminergic neurons and their projections [25]

39−3−3−3 Hormone deficiency
○ Oxytocin • Endorphin deficiency:Increased aggression and increased anxiety
○Dopamine deficiency:Powerless and lethargic. Declining concentration, attention and memory. The reaction gets dull. ・・・Same as symptoms of depression
• In patients with Parkinson's disease, nigral (A9) dopamine neurons die, resulting in less dopamine released in the striatum causing symptoms such as immobility, stasis and tremor.
・In the case of Parkinson's disease, only dopamine neurons are almost dead and other neurons remain normal.

39−3−3−4 Hormone excess
○Oxytocin excess:The receptor of oxytocin decreases, resulting in increased aggression and anxiety.
○Dopamine excess:Hallucination, delusions, paralysis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, overeating, sometimes aggressive ・・・Same as withdrawal symptoms of stimulants.
• Tobacco and stimulants such as narcotics, cocaine, amphetamine increase dopamine and become addictive.

39−3−3−5 How to increase your hormone levels naturally

1. Eat high quality protein:Animal products, soybeans (more than 2 packs of tofu or one pack of natto per day)
2. Exercise
3. Bathing at 40 ° C (Caution:If you enter a bath of 42 ° C or more for more than 10 minutes, your blood becomes sticky.)
4. Get adequate sleep.
5. Win and profit
6. Be praised.
7. Massage
8. Physical touch:Hugs, kisses, and cuddling, etc
9. Give and Get creative:In satisfying the physical needs, the suppressing substances trying to suppress it are released. However, when realizing the spiritual desire such as "love for humanity" "meditation" "art" "self-enhancement", the three hormones continue to be released without being suppressed.

○Dopamine is secreted from dopamine nervous system (aka A10 nervous system) by endorphin suppressing GABA neurons in ventral tegmental area.
○Since endorphins are present in unicellular organisms, they are considerably older than oxytocin.

39−3−3−6 Inhibition of 3 hormonal secretion
○The amount of secretion of endorphin decreases due to stress and fatigue, excitation hormone noradrenaline is secreted instead.
○Stress inhibits the secretion of dopamine.

39−4 Situation of brain science research
○BRAIN initiative [26]
The BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies, also referred to as the Brain Activity Map Project) is a proposed collaborative research initiative announced by the Obama administration on April 2, 2013, with the goal of mapping the activity of every neuron in the human brain. Based upon the Human Genome Project, the initiative has been projected to cost more than $300 million per year for ten years.

○Human Brain Project [27]
The Human Brain Project is a large 10-year scientific research project, established in 2013, coordinated by Henry Markram (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne) and largely funded by theEuropean Union, which aims to provide a collaborative informatics infrastructure and first draft rodent and human whole brain models within its 10 year funding period.The project is based inGeneva, Switzerland and was initiated by Markram.

39−5 Immunity and Memory
○Immunity:To escape disease with aware of the pathogens and cancer cells in vivo.
Plague (disease) by infection with pathogenic bacteria can be resistant, and we can be difficult to disease.
○ There is two type of immunity, the innate immunity of almost all organisms and the adaptive immunity of vertebrate.
○Innate immunity that leukocytes (phagocytes) eat pathogens are innately equipped.
→ The innate immune system can not function adequately against new viruses.
○The adaptive immunity:lymphocytes(specific leukocytes) produce acquired antibodies against viral and other pathogens (antigens) to suppress the activity of the virus.
○In lymphocyte balls, the information for production of antibodies (proteins) does "memory" into DNA. This is called immunological memory.
○Dr. Susumu Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize in this immunization research field (elucidation of the hereditary principle of antibody generation) in 1987.
○Immunological memory and cerebral memory work by the same structure, and both of immunological systems (lymphatic system) and nervous systems are everywhere spread in the whole body.

1. Connectome - Wikipedia
2. TED/Sebastian Seung: I am my connectome
3. 産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)(Japanese)
4. Cerebral cortex - Wikipedia
5. JEFFREY STERLING “Straight, No Chaser: Brain Health – How Your Brain Works”at JEFFREY STERLING.com 20160712
6.Yuuji Ichisugi”The Cerebral Cortex and Bayesian Networks”at Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan 20110715
7.Yuuji Ichisugi, Haruo Hosoya, "Computational Model of the Cerebral Cortex that Performs Sparse Coding Using a Bayesian Network and Self-Organizing Maps"
8.Frontal lobe - Wikipedia
9. “Frontal lobes”at CENTRE FOR NEURO SKILLS
10. Limbic System/The Neurophysiology of Emotions
11. Effects of stress on memory - Wikipedia
12.Cheryl D.Conrad” Chronic Stress-Induced Hippocampal Vulnerability: The Glucocorticoid Vulnerability Hypothesis”at US National Library of Medicine
13. Christian Schmahl, MD, Kevin Berne, MD, Annegret Krause, MA, Nikolaus Kleindienst, PhD, Gabriele Valerius, PhD, Eric Vermetten, MD, and Martin Bohus, MD” Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in patients with borderline personality disorder with or without posttraumatic stress disorder”at US National Library of Medicine
14. Christopher Bergland”The Size and Connectivity of the Amygdala Predicts Anxiety”at Psychology Today 20131120
15. “Alzheimer's Disease” at UCSF Memory and Aging Center
16. “Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences.”
17.No.61 Self Control
18. Britta K. Hölzel, James Carmody, Karleyton C. Evans, Elizabeth A. Hoge, Jeffery A. Dusek, Lucas Morgan, Roger K. Pitman, and Sara W. Lazar “Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala”at NCBI 201003
19. Ozlem Bozdagi,1 Erin Rich,1 Sophie Tronel,1 Masato Sadahiro,1 Kamara Patterson,1 Matthew L. Shapiro,1,2Cristina M. Alberini,1 George W. Huntley,1 and Stephen R. J. Salton “The Neurotrophin-Inducible Gene Vgf Regulates Hippocampal Function and Behavior Through a BDNF-Dependent Mechanism”at NCBI 20100211
20. Sobota R, Mihara T, Forrest A, Featherstone RE, Siegel SJ “Oxytocin reduces amygdala activity, increases social interactions, and reduces anxiety-like behavior irrespective of NMDAR antagonism.”at NCBI 201508
21. Nucleus accumbens - Wikipedia
22. Jon Lieff “Pleasure Circuits in the Brain”at Searching for the Mind 20150705
23.Debbie Hampton “Why Spending Time With Friends Boosts Your Oxytocin”at mindbodygreen
24. Daphna Shohamy and R. Alison Adcock” Dopamine and adaptive memory”
25. “Caudate Nucleus” at Pinterest • A világ legnagyobb ötletgyűjteménye
26.BRAIN initiative
27. Human Brain Project

【Change log】
20170416 Add a photo
20180212 Delete Alzheimer's preventive food

39 脳 #知性

39 脳 #知性

39−1 脳の成長
【参照】エレーヌ・フォックス/心と脳の白熱教室 第4回「あなたの性格は変えられるか」


※コネクトーム(connectome)[1] [2]とは、生物の神経系内の各要素(ニューロンニューロン群、領野など)の間の詳細な接続状態を表した地図、つまり神経回路の地図のこと。つながる、接続するといった意味を持つ英語のコネクト(connect)という言葉と、「全体」を表す-オーム(-ome)という接尾語から作られた言葉。イヌやサルではなく、人間の神経回路地図全体のことを言うときは特にヒト・コネクトーム(Human connectome)と言う。コネクトームの調査、研究を行う分野はコネクトミクスと呼ばれる。

☆脳に匹敵するのは、成長できる人工知能(Growing artificial intelligence; GAI)ということになる。

39−2 脳の特徴


ベイジアンネット:確率論に基づいた推論を効率的に行うための技術。 脳の機能の1つである直観と似た働きをする。脳の情報処理原理の解明の鍵となる技術。[3]
イギリス牧師トーマス・ベイズ(1702年(?) - 1761年)によって1763年に発見されたベイズの定理をもとにしている。
自己組織化マップ:コホネン(T. Kohonen)により提案された教師なしのニューラルネットワークアルゴリズム

39−3 大脳皮質
哺乳類で出現する新しい皮質(新皮質)では神経細胞は6層構造をなして整然と並んでいる。(海馬は3層 [5])



大脳皮質の構造 [6]

39−3−1 前頭葉




39−3−2 大脳辺縁系

大脳辺縁系 [8]

コルチゾールにより、海馬神経細胞は破壊(神経新生を阻害 [9])され、海馬が萎縮する。心的外傷後ストレス障害PTSD)・うつ病の患者には海馬の萎縮が確認される。[10]

<対 策>
○コーピング:ストレスをしっかり認知しながら対策を繰り返すと、前頭葉が活性化して扁桃体の活動を抑制できる。[9] [11]
○過去や未来のことを考えず体や呼吸の感覚に意識を向けるマインドフルネスでも海馬回復扁桃体の減少が確認されている。[9] [11]



39−3−3 オキシトシンエンドルフィンドーパミン

39−3−3−1 3つのホルモンの効果

・脳の報酬系モルヒネの6.5倍作用する鎮静・鎮痛作用のあるホルモンモルヒネと同じ作用を起こすことから、体内性モルヒネ=エンドジーナス・モルフィン(endogenous morphine)の略称で、エンドルフィン(endorphin)と命名された。


39−3−3−2 どこから分泌されるのか?

※脳内報酬系 [15]

39−3−3−3 ホルモンの欠乏

ドーパミン神経系線条体 [16]

39−3−3−4 ホルモンの過多

39−3−3−5 ホルモンを分泌するためには

1. 食事・・・ホルモンを出すにはタンパク質が必要:動物製品、大豆(1日に、豆腐一丁、もしくは納豆を2パック以上)
2. 運動
3. 40℃のお風呂(ただし、42℃以上のお風呂に10分以上入ると血液がドロドロになる。)
4. 睡眠
5. 勝つ・儲かる
6. 人に好かれる。褒められる。
7. マッサージ
8. 物理的接触:ハグ、キス、抱擁 等
9. 創造等:物理的欲求を満たす際には、それを抑えようとする抑制物質が放出される。ところが「人類愛」「瞑想」「芸術」「自己を高める」などの精神的欲求を実現している際は、3つのホルモンは抑制されずに放出され続ける。


39−3−3−6 3つのホルモンの分泌を阻害するもの

39−4 脳科学研究の状況
米国では2013年にオバマ政権が提唱した脳科学への大型研究助成である「BRAINイニシアティブ」が実質的に始まった。欧州EU)でも、脳科学情報科学プロジェクトである「Human Brain Project」が本格化した。日本では、Brain/MINDSプロジェクト(「革新的技術による脳機能ネットワークの全容解明プロジェクト」、通称「革新脳」http://brainminds.jp/ )の構想が明らかにされた。[17]

○BRAIN initiative
・2013年4月2日 オバマ米大統領が発表した
※BRAIN: Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies
2018年 マウス大脳皮質全体の神経細胞からのデータ収集

39−5 免疫と記憶
○ 自然免疫は、先天的に備わっており、白血球(食細胞)が病原体などを食べることによる。

利根川進免疫研究ののち脳の研究に進み1996 年に生体のマウスにおける空間記憶に海馬の CA1 と呼ばれる領域が必要不可欠なことを示した[42]。この領域にある場所細胞 (place cell|) と呼ばれる細胞マウスがある空間における特定の場所 (場所受容野 (place field)と呼ばれる領域) に来た時にのみ選択的に発火する。この場所受容野はその空間全体に分布していて、場所細胞のグループで海馬内に地図を作っていると解釈されている。この地図の正確性はマウスの空間の学習能力を決定している。利根川は CA1 領域の NMDA 型グルタミン酸受容体の NR1 サブユニットを遺伝子的に除去することにより、受容体を特異的に阻害することで、場所細胞の反応選択性が対照群より低下することを示した。

【参 考】
1. コネクトーム- Wikipedia
2. TED日本語 - セバスチャン・スン: 私はコネクトームである
3. 産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)
4. 大脳皮質- Wikipedia
5. Cerebral cortex - Wikipedia
6. 一杉裕志“大脳皮質ベイジアンネット” Yuuji Ichisugi”The Cerebral Cortex and Bayesian Networks”at 日本ロボット学会誌 2011
7.“大脳皮質のおはなし”at Akira Magazine
8.大脳皮質辺縁系基底核 - 管理薬剤師.com TOP
9.キラーストレス ストレスから脳を守れ 〜最新科学で迫る対処法〜|NHKスペシャル
10. 海馬- Wikipedia
11. No.61 自己コントロール
12.“ウォーキング 1日の歩数の目安は8000歩・早歩き20分が健康に効果的 青柳幸利氏”at 健康長寿の道
13.ケリー・マクゴニガル”ストレス友達になる方法” at TEDGlobal 2013
14. 青崎 敏彦”脳内物質ドーパミンのはたらき”
15. “脳内麻薬βーエンドルフィン依存症”at 海馬の我楽多箱
16.”ドパミン神経系”at 管理薬剤師.com
17.欧米における脳科学関連大型プロジェクトの 動向について/日本脳科学関連学会連合 将来構想委員会 岡部繁男(東京大学) 本田学(国立精神・神経医療研究センター)
【履 歴】
20180212 アルツハイマーの予防食材について削除

38 What is Thinking? #Intelligence

38 What is Thinking? #Intelligence

○With thinking, a concept, a language, etc. are operated, a meaning is got to know, and semantic attachment is performed.
○Thinking is Judgment( knows the meaning, or gives the meaning) by the information acquired by learning.

○Artificial intelligence is thinking!
2016 −And Alphago won the former world champion. [1]
ALPHA won the tactical experts in combat simulation. [2]
Japan moves to protect ‘copyrights’ of AI creations [3]

※2016 Microsoft, Delft University of Technology, the Mauritshuis in The Hague and the Rembrandt House Museum in Amsterdam [4]

1. The guardian”AlphaGo: beating humans is one thing but to really succeed AI must work with them”

○ Pattern of the game
・Japanese chess:10^220
※In chess, there is a choice of 35 different ways on average in any aspect. In go, there is a choice of 250 different ways. The choices are greater than atoms in the universe

○Go・・・Difficulties on programing
1)Branching coefficient ...Since the number of combination increases suddenly, AI can not search deeply.
2)There was no good way to recognize the complex face of a board. ... Too much heuristics.

2. UC Magazine “New artificial intelligence beats tactical experts in combat simulation”
3. “Japan moves to protect ‘copyrights’ of AI creations” at The Japan Times
4. Mark Brown” 'New Rembrandt' to be unveiled in Amsterdam”at the guardian

38 思考とは? #知性

38 思考とは? #知性


2016年Alphagoが元世界チャンピオンに勝利。 [1]

2016年 Microsoftオランダのデルフト工科大学などの共同チーム制作 [4]

【参 照】
1. AlphaGo - Wikipedia



2. 人工知能パイロット無人戦闘機の戦闘シミュレーションで元空軍大佐に勝利
3. “AIの創作物” at IoT
4. 人工知能が描くレンブラントの“新作” at ITmedia ニュース


37 Mind and Spirit #Intelligence

37 Mind and Spirit #Intelligence

37−1 Mind

○Mind refers to man's (living thing's) mental action. And the one which becomes a basis of feeling, will, knowledge, consideration, etc are included. [1]

26 心とは?.jpg

37−2 Spirit

○The soul is considered to exist as mental entity substance aside from body.
○The spirit is thought that it is pregnant in not only man but also at large living things[ animals or plants], and it is also pregnant in mineral. The spirit may be identified with the heart.

※ The proposal in the general meeting in World Health Organization (WHO) 1999
 :Health is in a completely good dynamic state physically, mentally, spiritually, and socially, and is not only sick or not only weak.

1. 心 - Wikipedia

【Change log】
20170416 Add a photo
20171111 Integration of Mind and Spirit

37 心と霊魂 #知性

37 心と霊魂 #知性

37−1 心 [1]


26 心とは?.jpg

37−2 霊魂



【参 照】
1. 心 - Wikipedia

20170416 写真の追加
20171111 心と霊魂の統合

36 What is Consciousness? #Intelligence

36 What is Consciousness? #Intelligence

36−1 Overview
○Consciousness is the state that we can assess the environment, such as around the state and that their situation now, etc.
・Absent-minded consciousness is also in a dog, a cat, etc.

○Unit of consciousness ... Thermostat as one unit, [1]
Flower 10units
Animal Several hundred units

○Level of consciousness [1]
Level1:They can recognize space. (Reptile)
Level2:They can recognize space and society. (Mammal )
Level3:We can recognize space, society and Time. (Reptile)
※ In addition, procrastination ability of satisfaction is the difference between the degree of success.

25 意識とは?.jpg

36−2 Self-consciousness
・Self-consciousness is directed to oneself.

○Psychologists frequently distinguish between two kinds of self-consciousness, private and public. [2]
・Private self-consciousness is a tendency to introspect and examine one's inner self and feelings.
・Public self-consciousness is an awareness of the self as it is viewed by others. This kind of self-consciousness can result in self-monitoring and social anxiety.

○ The test to determine the presence of self-consciousness: The mirror test, sometimes called the mark test or the mirror self-recognition test (MSR) [3]
This is accomplished by surreptitiously marking the animal with an odourless dye, and observing whether the animal reacts in a manner consistent with it being aware that the dye is located on its own body.

・Self-consciousness is not developed until 2 years before and after in humans. [2]
• Great apes, (such as chimpanzees and orangutans) a single Asiatic elephant, dolphins and orcas, the Eurasian magpie, rhesus macaques, and some ants, have passed the MSR test. A wide range of species have been reported to fail the test including several monkey species, giant pandas, sea lions, and dogs. [2]

・No self-consciousness is no jealousy.

36−3 Bayesian network [4]
○Bayesian networks of AI can have the consciousness.
• However, because "consciousness" is used in a variety of means, we need to be careful.
・And non-functional aspects of consciousness, can not be reproduced in the Bayesian net.

※Bayesian network:It is a technique for making inferences based on probabilistic efficiently. And it acts similar to intuition, which is one of the functions of the brain. It is a technology that is the key to understanding of information processing principles of the brain.
・It has based on Bayes' theorem, which was discovered in 1763 by British pastor Thomas Bayes (1702 (?) - 1761).

36−4 Quantum mind
British mathematician, astrophysics and theoretical physicist Roger Penrose (Roger Penrose, 1931-) has presented the hypothesis that there is deep relationship between information processing and quantum mechanics in the brain.
He says, basic and simple unknown attributes that becomes the original of a consciousness has been associated in each elementary particles. When the wave function is contracted in microtubules of neuron, at the same time the unknown attribute combines on, and high level consciousness of the organism occurs.

※Penrose believed that microtubules are involved in neurotransmission, but microtubule is a kind of cytoskeleton.
Neurotransmission due to propagation of changes in membrane potential of neurons (action potential) and it takes place via chemicals between neurons..
※ Hawking says, "Even if I admit his OR(Objective-Reduction:hypothesis theory about the development and reduction of the wave function), (because it is too fine things)it is hard to believe that the mechanism and system of the brain is affected by OR in nature. ".

36−5 Quantum computer [5][6][7]
As the phenomena of the elementary particles, they have two states (0 and 1 : bit) at the same time (the state of superposition and entanglement).
By controlling this property, it is possible to represent the number of conditions with fewer bits. This allows a calculation that was one by one processing until now, at the same time (in parallel) can be processed.This parallel processing, it is can be solved in a few tens of seconds in calculation which can not be solved even if it takes thousands of years in the current super computer.
2011 (128) D-Wave Systems, Inc. (Canada) was successful in the construction of a quantum computer "D-Wave".

☆ If consciousness is due to the attributes of the particles, with the advancement of quantum computers, AI also might have a sense! = Meeting with non-life intelligence!

36−6 Artificial Consciousness、AC
・There is an ethical problem giving a self-consciousness in artificial intelligence.
・For the existence with self-consciousness there is a need to co-exist recognized its individuality.
・It produces always revolt if trying to slavery the existence with self-consciousness.

1."The wonder future - latest physics talks" Michio Kaku (April 2015)
E Tele/New York incandescent classroom 20150424 consciousness and mind
 ※ Michio Kaku officialsite
2. Self-consciousness - Wikipedia
3. Mirror test - Science Daily
4. 産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)
5. No.40 Growing artificial intelligence(GAI)
6. Quantum computing - Wikipedia
7. 日経ビジネス/世界初「量子コンピューター」生みの親、「訂正」に挑む/西森秀稔へのインタビュー

36 意識とは? #知性

36 意識とは? #知性

36−1 概 要
・ ぼんやりした意識は犬・猫などにもある。

○意識の単位・・・ サーモスタットを1単位とすると、[1]
    花       10単位
    動物      数百単位

○意識のレベル [1]

25 意識とは?.jpg

36−2 自己意識(self-consciousness)=自己認識=自意識

私的自己意識:自己の内面(感覚,感情,思考など)に向けられる。(前帯状皮質(anterior cingulate cortex, BA32)、内側前頭前野(medial prefrontal cortex, BA10)、後帯状皮質(posterior cingulate cortex, BA 23/31)、および楔前部(precuneus, BA7)を含む大脳皮質正中内側部構造(cortical midline structure))




36−3 ベイジアンネット [3]
・ただし、「意識」という言葉は様々な意味で使われることがあるので 注意が必要。

ベイジアンネット:確率論に基づいた推論を効率的に行うための技術。 脳の機能の1つである直観と似た働きをする。脳の情報処理原理の解明の鍵となる技術。
イギリス牧師トーマス・ベイズ(1702年(?) - 1761年)によって1763年に発見されたベイズの定理をもとにしている。

36−4 量子脳理論
イギリス数学者宇宙物理学・理論物理学ロジャー・ペンローズ(Roger Penrose, 1931- )は、著書『皇帝の新しい心』にて、脳内の情報処理には量子力学が深く関わっているという仮説を提示している。
ペンローズは微小管が神経伝達に関わっていると考えていたようだが、微小管( microtubule)は、細胞骨格一種

36−5 量子コンピュータ [4][5][6]
2011年(128)  D-Wave Systems社(カナダ)が量子コンピュータ「D-Wave」の建造に成功した。


36−6 人工意識(Artificial Consciousness、AC

【参 考】
Eテレ ニューヨーク白熱教室 20150424 意識と心
You Tube:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dMt5FB6inY

※加來 道雄、Michio Kaku、1947年1月24日 –
2. 脳科学辞典自己意識/守田知代
3.産業技術総合研究所 > 一杉裕志 > 脳とベイジアンネット > 脳とベイジアンネットFAQ( 2011-05-26 更新)
4.No.40 成長する人工知能(GAI)
5. 量子コンピュータ - Wikipedia

35 What is Intelligence? #Intelligence

35 What is Intelligence? #Intelligence

○Intelligence is the capability of a language and a network.
Etymologically it is the capability of the selection accompanied by consciousness.

※ Origin of the word: Originate in a Latin verb "intellegere" and mean the ability of "legere(choose)" from "inter(between)" two or more choices. However, the instinct beforehand programmed by the gene is not intellect. Intellect is the acquired capability to create the possibility of new selection.

Reference:"System methodology archive" (〜2011) Toshiya Nagai

※ In Goo Dictionary, intellectus is the capability which gets to know things and considers and judges.Capability to perform man's intellectual action.

○Dolphin, Chimpanzee, and the Orangutan can recognize themselves.
→Since there are communications skills, it is not as man, but it can be said that it has intellectus.

○The main feature of intellectus is creative

☆Level of intelligence
 Level1  Frontal lobe of the brain to judge and create.
 Level2  Brain is using artificial intelligence to auxiliary. (The current)
 Level3  Brain and artificial intelligence do judgment and creativity together.

35 知性とは? #知性

35 知性とは? #知性

※語源:ラテン語動詞“intellegere”に由来し、複数の選択肢の“間から inter”“選ぶlegere”能力を意味する。ただし、選択の能力といっても、遺伝子にあらかじめプログラムされた本能は知性でない。知性は新しい選択の可能性を切り開く後天的な能力。





 レベル1 脳の前頭葉が判断・創造している。
 レベル2 脳が人工知能を補助的に使っている。(現在)
 レベル3 脳と人工知能が一体となって判断・創造している。


34 Cell and DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) #Intelligence

34 Cell and DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) #Intelligence

・Humans are made of about 100 trillion cells.
・The human nervous system is estimated to consist of roughly 360 billion non-neural glial cells and 100 billion nerve cells.
・Incidentally, the birth of multicellular organisms is the Cambrian about 600 million years ago.


○DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
・Every person has about 25,000 different genes.
・Plant is an animal of seniors with 40,000 or more genes.
 ※Gene: The corresponding DNA sequence to a protein.

・The length of human DNA in a single cell is 1.8 meters. (2 nanometers wide)
※1nanometer is one point nine times ten to the minus second.

・The length of the blood vessels in the adult is about 100,000 km(1×10E5m).
  ※Earth's diameter is 12,700 km(1.27×10E4m).
・The world largest is 62-th power of 10 of the world smallest.

DNA of human and chimpanzee is consistent 98.5 percent.

○World of Living thing
・The Biological World is made by the coincidences and an accumulation of trial and error of over 100 millions years. This was not inevitable.  Susumu Tonegawa "Spirit and Matter"

34 細胞とDNA #知性

34 細胞とDNA #知性



○DNA(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid

(参 照)「遺伝子の数え方」福岡 伸一




・生物の世界というのは、何億年にもわたる偶然の積み重ね、試行錯誤の積み重ねでいまこうなっているということであって、こうなった必然性なんてない。 利根川進「精神と物質」

33 Mathematics #Universe

33 Mathematics #Universe

○Mathematics is the alphabet with which God has written the Universe. -Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)

○How can it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality? —Albert Einstein

Key word:Symmetry [1]

※Forecast of mathematics:Those that do not can still prove.
(It is well in the world of mathematics.)

【Mathematical history】
About 7000 years ago  Number was born. (Mankind began to group living.)
16th century Imaginary number is accepted.
・・・"Forgetting the mental anguish received with imaginary number, and merely introducing this." Gerolamo Cardano(Italy 1501〜1576)
17th century  Minus is accepted in Europe.
・・・Descartes draws a number line.   René Descartes(France 1596〜1650)
The first half of the 19th century  An imaginary number is denoted by an axis of coordinates.:complex plane  Carolus Fridericus Gauss(Germany 1777〜1855)
1935  Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem
・・・Then, Turing(Aan Mathison Turing, UK 1912-1954) proved that there is no unific method of confirming beforehand whether a certain proposition is a proposition which cannot judge truth.
1964  Murray Gell-Mann (1929-)predicted the existence of quarks by the theory of pure mathematics(the group:SU (3)).

1. Relationship between mathematics and physics - Wikipedia
2.Edward Vladimirovich Frenkel(1968-)

【Change log】
20170416 Addition of a photo
20170419 Addition of the words of Einstein

33 数学 #宇宙

33 数学 #宇宙


○経験とは独立した思考の産物である数学が,物理的実在である対象と,これほどうまく合致しうるのはなぜなのか? −アインシュタイン

キーワード対称性 [1]


約7000年前 数字が誕生した。(人類が集団生活を始めた。)
16世紀  虚数を認める
・・・「虚数によって受ける精神的苦痛は忘れ、ただこれを導入せよ」カルダノ(イタリア 1501〜76)
17世紀  ヨーロッパでマイナスが認められる・・・デカルトが数直線を描く
                   デカルト(仏 1596〜1650)
19世紀前半  座標軸で虚数を現す:複素平面 ガウス(独1777〜1855)
1931年   不完全性定理 ゲーデルオーストリア 1906−78)
1964年  マレー・ゲルマン(1929-)は純粋数学の理論(群:SU(3))を使ってクォークの存在を予言した。

【参 考】
1. NHK 数学ミステリー白熱教室 エドワード・フレンケル(1968-)

20170416 写真の追加
20170419 アインシュタインの言葉の追加

32 What is the Universe?+The History of Cosmology #Cosmology

32 What is the Universe?+The History of Cosmology #Cosmology

32−1 What is known
1)Macro phenomena such as celestial movements and evolution of the universe can be explained by general relativity.
2)Using quantum mechanics describing the micro world, we can explain the three powers of "electromagnetic force" "strong interaction" "weak interaction".・・・Standard theory, Higgs boson etc.
3)The unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics is yet to be seen.

⇒The universe is expanding, but we can not see the future at the present moment.

32−2 Hawking's question
Q:Why does the universe exist in spite of trouble?
Q:Can a unified theory of the universe explain the universe accurately?
Q:Or we need the Creator
Q:If so, the Creator gives the effect of something else in the universe?
Q:And who created the Creator

Source: "Brief History of Time" Stephen William Hawking (issued April 15, 1995)

32−3 Freeman Dyson's words
○We can not fully study science with something like a unified theory - Freeman Dyson explains the reason with Gödel's incompleteness theorems

☆Image of the Universe

【The history of cosmology】
1895  William James(1842-1910) coined the term Multi-Universe(Multiverse).
1900  Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck(1858 -1947) advocated that the light, X-rays and other electromagnetic waves were released as a constant mass that he called quantum.
1905  Special relativity[1]・・・Theory of electromagnetism that Albert Einstein(1879-1955) announced.
1913   Bohr's model(Niels Henrik David Bohr(1885-1962))・・・A pioneer of quantum mechanics (Old quantum theory).
・Electron is a wave.
・The length of the electrons orbit around the nucleus is an integer multiple of the electron wavelength (10 minus 10 square m).
(Bohr, de Broglie)
1915-1916 General theory of relativity(General relativity)(Einstein) [1] [Electromagnetic force + gravity]
Einstein explained that the gravity caused by the mass distort the space-time.
• When written in Newtonian mechanics[2] the phenomenon of error increases (movement in the near to the speed of light or large gravitational field) can be correctly described.
• In general relativity, spacetime is expected never to stay inflated or deflated steady or the black hole[3] is expected to forme when a large mass to concentrate on limited space.
Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves[4] in 1916 in his general theory of relativity.
1920s  Quantum mechanics
・Atomic, electronic and electromagnetic waves have the characteristics of the particles and waves.
1922 Friedman found the expanding universe solutions in general relativity equations.
1925  Pauli exclusion principle
1926  Werner Heisenberg was put together the uncertainty principle[5].
※Uncertainty principle:It is a characteristic of the system, such as the wave. In knowing pair of physical properties (eg position and momentum) at the same time, there is a fundamental limit of accuracy.
1928 Dirac theory
 ・Either both consistent:theory of quantum mechanics and special relativity
・There is positron(antimatter) that is the partner of electron.
1929  Discovery of cosmic expansion(the redshift)(Edwin Powell Hubble)
1932 Discovery of positron(antimatter)
1934  Fritz Zwicky coined the term dark matter. [6]
1948 −Big Bang model [7]
   −Quantum electrodynamics, QED [Electromagnetic force ]
• Electromagnetic interaction acting between charged particles, including electrons is caused by the transfer of particles called photons.
1957 Bryce Seligman DeWitt (1923–2004) coined the term many-worlds interpretation; MWI.
1960 Freeman Dyson advocated Dyson Ball
・Peter Ware Higgs proposed the theory of generation of mass. [8]
・Cosmic microwave background (radiation)(; CMB、CMBR)[7]discovered.
1968 Weinberg-Salam theory[9] [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction]
1970  Penrose and Hawkins (co-authored paper)
・On the basis of the general relativity theory, they were finally prove that should there was a big bang singularity in the very early universe.
• In the singularity, the effect of small scale of quantum mechanics dealing can not be ignored.
• However, if you take into account the quantum effect, singularities disappear. ...?
・Only one force was present in the beginning of the universe, then, the force was divided into electromagnetic force, weak interaction, strong interaction and gravity, so physicists are trying to expresse these four forces in one form.
 −Standard Model, SM [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction(+ Strong interaction)] [9]
−Grand unification theory or Grand unified theory、GUT[Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+ Strong interaction] [10]
The late 1970s  −Quantum chromodynamics [9]
1980s  Cosmology based on theory of elementary particles[10]
1981  Cosmic inflation Theory [11]
1984  Superstring Theory [12] [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+Strong interaction + Gravity]
1986~  Loop Quantum Gravity [13]
1995   M-theory[14] [Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+Strong interaction + Gravity] 
1998  −Michael S. Turner coined the term dark energy. [6]
    −Observed the accelerated expansion of the universe(Brian P. Schmidt)
2016   Studio Gooda! coined structure of dark matter. [7]

1. No. 14 Theory of Relativity
2. No. 13 Newtonian Mechanics
3. No. 81 Black Hole
4. No.31 Gravitational Wave
5. No.16 Uncertainty Principle
6. No.9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy
7. No.18 The Big Bang Mmodel
8. No. 23 Higgs Field/Higgs Boson
9. No.19 Standard Theory(Standard Model)
10. No.21 Quantum Cosmology
11. No.21−2 Inflation cosmology
12. No.24 Superstring Theory
13. No.26 Loop Quantum Gravity
14. No.25 M-theory
15. No.84−4−2 A Structure of Dark Matter

【Change log】
20170416 Addition of the image of the Universe
20170515 Addition of No.32−1 What is known
20171030  Addition of No.32−3 Freeman Dyson's words

32 宇宙とは?+宇宙論の歴史 #宇宙論

32 宇宙とは?+宇宙論の歴史 #宇宙論

32−1 分かっていること
2)ミクロの世界を記述する量子力学を用いて、「電磁気力」「強い力」「弱い力」の3つの力を説明できる。・・・標準理論、ヒッグス粒子 等


32−2 ホーキングの疑問


32−3 フリーマン・ダイソンの言葉


1895年 ウィリアム・ジェームズ 多元宇宙という言葉を作る。
1900年 マックス・プランク(1858 -1947) は、光、X線その他の電磁波は、量子と彼
1905年 特殊相対性理論 [1]:アルベルト・アインシュタイン(1879-1955)が発表した電磁気学の理論。[電磁気力]
1913年 ボーアの原子模型(ニールス・ボーア(1885-1962)):電子は波で、原子核を回る軌道の長さは波長(10のマイナス10乗m)の整数倍(ボーア、ド・ブロイ)
1915−1916年 一般相対性理論 [1] [電磁気力+重力]
1920年代 量子力学
1922 年 フリードマン一般相対論方程式の中に膨張宇宙解を見つけた。
1925年 パウリの排他原理
1926年 ヴェルナー・ハイゼンベルグが、不確定性原理[5]をまとめあげた。
1928年 ディラック理論・・・量子力学特殊相対性理論のどちらとも整合性のある理論
1929年 宇宙膨張(銀河の赤方遷移)の発見(エドウィンパウエルハッブル
1932年 陽電子反物質)の発見
1934年 フリッツ・ツビッキーが暗黒物質を提唱 [6]
−量子電磁力学(Quantum electrodynamics, QED)[電磁気力]
1957年  ブライス・デウィット多世界解釈を提唱。
1960年  フリーマン・ダイソンダイソン球を提唱
1968年 ワインバーグ=サラム理論[9] [電磁気力+弱い力]
1970年 ペンローズホーキングの共著論文
○標準理論( Standard Model, SM) [電磁気力+弱い力(+強い力)] [9]
大統一理論(Grand unification theory or Grand unified theory、GUT)[電磁気力+弱い力+強い力]  [10]
1970年代後半 量子色力学 [9]
1980年代 素粒子論的宇宙論 [10]
1981年 インフレーション理論 [11]
1984年 超弦理論(Superstring theory 1984) [12] [電磁気力+弱い力+強い力+重力]
1986年〜  ループ量子重力理論 [13]
1995年 M理論[電磁気力+弱い力+強い力+重力] [14]
1998年 −マイケル・ターナー 暗黒エネルギーという言葉を作る。[6]
2016年 スタジオ・グーダ! 暗黒物質の構造を提案 [15]

【参 照】
1. No.14 相対性理論
2. No.13 ニュートン力学
3. No.81 ブラックホール
4. No.29 重力波
5. No.16 不確定性原理
6. No.9 暗黒物質と暗黒エネルギー
7. No.18 ビッグバン・モデル
8. No.23 ヒッグス場/ヒッグス粒子
9. No.19 標準理論(標準モデル)
10. No.21 素粒子論的宇宙論
11. No.21−2 インフレーション理論
12. No.24 超弦理論
13. No.26 ループ量子重力理論
14. No.25 M理論
15. No.87−4−2 暗黒物質の構造

20170416 宇宙のイメージの追加
20170515 No.32−1 分かっていること の追加
20171030 No.32−3 フリーマン・ダイソンの言葉の追加


31 Entanglement Entropy #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory

31 Entanglement Entropy #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory

○ Quantum Entanglement Entropy(EE):Number of quantum entanglements. An indicator of the quantification of quantum entanglement. = Number of EPR pair (EPR: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen)

○ It is very difficult to calculate the entropy of quantum with quantum field theory, but in Anti de Sitter space(Ads), like a holography, It can be replaced by calculation of surface area of a bubble (like a black hole with the smallest surface area). :Ryu-Takayanagi formula(Holographic Entanglement Entropy Formula 2006) [1]

※Anti de Sitter space(Ads):One of the spaces where the curvature is negative and constant
= Universe with negative cosmic constant Λ (dark energy)
⇔de Sitter space(dS) (Positive curvature)

曲率:curvature, 宇宙定数:cosmic constant Λ, 質量:mass [2]

Figure:Curvature [3]

• A major feature of AdS is to be able to cover infinite space in a finite area.

Firure:Escher's picture: It is close to the image which projected Anti de Sitter space on the plane.

• Although de Sitter space universe (Λ> 0) is close to the real universe, its holographic principle has not been elucidated. [4]

○Ryu-Takayanagi formula:Holographic Entanglement Entropy Formula (2006)
• They revealed that holographic principle is related to quantum entanglement.
• Calculation of the entropy of quantum entanglement in quantum field theory can be replaced with calculation of the surface area of bubble (shaped to minimize the surface area) generated in AdS. [5]

Figure:Thinking of the minimal aspect extending from the interface to the inside of the AdS space, calculating its area and dividing it by 4 times the Newton's constant of gravity theory is equivalent to entanglement entropy. [6]

※Ryu-Takayanagi formula:Holographic Entanglement Entropy Formula

is the minimal area surface
・Generalization of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula.

※Bekenstein-Hawking entropy [7]

○In Ryu-Takayanagi formula, one bit of quantum entanglement is present per planck area (1 square planck length).

※Planck length

○Task:It is necessary to elucidate the quantum entanglement in de Sitter space.

○Application of quantum entangy entropy:
・Entangy entropy (EE) is helpful for understanding s of various (quantum) gravity phenomena such as black hole formations, singularities etc. [5]

・In certain substances, controlling interatomic distances and temperatures leads to the transition to "strange metal" (anomalous metallic phase), which has different electrical characteristics (superconductivity) from ordinary metals, It is caused by becoming quantum entangled state as a whole (rapid increase of quantum entanglement entropy).

1. Ryu-Takayanagi Conjecture - Wikipedia
2. T. Takayanagi" Front line of super string theory:Is the universe created from qubits?“ 20170524(Japanese)
3. 中村 真“非専門家のためのAdS/CFT対応入門” 20111214 (Japanese)
4. 高柳 匡"超ひも理論の最前線:宇宙は量子ビットから創られているのか?“ 20170524 (Japanese)
5. Tadashi Takayanagi” Entanglement Entropy and AdS/CFT” 2012
6. Tadashi Takayanagi” Recent Developments in (Holographic) Entanglement Entropy” 2012
7. No.27−2 Thermodynamics and the Laws of Newton

【Chnge log】
20180117 Newly posted

31 量子もつれのエントロピー(エンタングルメント・エントロピー) #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論

31 量子もつれエントロピー(エンタングルメント・エントロピー) #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論


○場の量子論量子もつれエントロピーを計算しようとすると非常に難しいが、反ド・ジッター空間では、ホログラフィックにバブル(表面積が最小になるようなブラックホールのような形状のもの)の表面積の計算に置き換えることができる。:笠・高柳公式(Holographic Entanglement Entropy Formula 2006)[1]

※反ドジッター空間/AdS: Anti de Sitter 時空:曲率が負で一定の空間(の一つ)
dS: de Sitter 空間(曲率:正)[2]

図:曲率 [3]

・AdS 空間の大きな特徴は無限大の空間を、有限の領域に包み込めること。



○笠-高柳(Ryu-Takayanagi)公式(2006 年):量子もつれエントロピーホログラフィー公式
・場の量子論での量子のもつれのエントロピーの計算は、反ド・ジッター空間に発生したバブル(表面積が最小になるような形状のもの)の表面積の計算に置き換えることができる。[5] [6]

図:境界面から AdS 空間の内部に伸びていく極小局面を考え、その面積を計算して重力理論のニュートン定数の4倍で割ったものが、エンタングルメント・エントロピーに 等しい。

・ベッケンシュタイン-ホーキングのブラック ホール・エントロピー公式の一般化。

※ベッケンシュタイン-ホーキングの公式 [7]





・ある種の物質では原子距離と温度を制御すると、通常の金属とは電気特性超電導)が異なる「ストレンジメタル(異常金属anomalous metallic phase)」に転移するが、これは物質を構成する電子が全体として量子もつれ状態になること(量子もつれエントロピーの急増)によって生じる。

【参 照】
1. 中島林彦“ホログラフィー原理を解く“at 日経サイエンス 201701
2. 高柳 匡"超ひも理論の最前線:宇宙は量子ビットから創られているのか?“ 20170524
3. 中村 真“非専門家のためのAdS/CFT対応入門” 20111214
4. 高柳 匡"超ひも理論の最前線:宇宙は量子ビットから創られているのか?“ 20170524
5. J. マルダセナ「重力は幻なのか?」日経サイエンス200602
6.中島林彦“ホログラフィー原理を解く“at 日経サイエンス 201701
7.No.29−2 熱力学ニュートンの法則
8.高柳 匡"超ひも理論の最前線:宇宙は量子ビットから創られているのか?“ 20170524
9.Tadashi Takayanagi “Entanglement Entropy and AdS/CFT” 2012

【履 歴】
20180117 新規

30 Quantum entanglement #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory

30 Quantum entanglement #gravity #universe #QuantumTheory #SuperStringTheory

○Quantum entanglement
When we look at particles, we usually say that each particle has its own quantum state like spin. Sometimes, two particles can act on one another and become an entangled system. When a pair or group of particles can only be described by the quantum state for the system, and not by individual quantum states, we say the particles are "entangled".
Quantum entanglement – Simple English Wikipedia
• Quantum entanglement occurs in a moment. Also, there are no particles that mediate action.
• The pair of quantum entanglements is called an EPR pair (EPR: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen), and it is a quantum 1 bit (unit of quantum entanglement).
Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen were the first to point out this mysterious fact.

• There are three main fields related to quantum entanglement, quantum information theory, quantum field theory and gravity theory.
• Applications of quantum entanglement include quantum computer, quantum teleportation, and quantum cryptography.

○Spacetime itself could emerge from the entanglement.
• There is an idea that quantum entanglement stores energy. Because energy is equivalent to mass, quantum entanglement may have mass

○There is also the idea that the universe is created from quantum entanglement.
: The smallest unit of space-time is quantum entanglement of 1 bit, the one that countlessly gathered is the universe.

1. Jennifer Lin, Matilde Marcolli, Hirosi Ooguri, and Bogdan Stoica“Locality of Gravitational Systems from Entanglement of Conformal Field Theories” at Phys. Rev. Lett. 20150602
2. “How spacetime is built by quantum entanglement” University of Tokyo 20150527,

【Change log】
20170113 New Post

30 量子もつれ? #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論

30 量子もつれ? #重力 #宇宙 #量子論 #超弦理論

量子もつれ(量子エンタングルメントquantum entanglement)




【参 照】
1. SANAE AKIYAMA”量子もつれには「質量」があるのか?”at WIRED 20150705
2. 高柳 匡

【履 歴】
20170113 新規

29 Gravitational Wave #Gravity #universe

29 Gravitational Wave #Gravity #universe

29−1 What are Gravitational Waves?[1] [2]
○ Gravitational waves are ripples of spacetime that propagate at the speed of light.
○Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity.
○On February 11, 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors. On June 15, 2016, a second detection of gravitational waves from coalescing black holes was announced. [3] [4]

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (part 1) (Credit: LIGO)[5]

※Gravitational wave generated from collision of two black holes (part 2) (ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA)

○Expected gravity wave source:supernova explosion, binary system of neutron star • black hole, atomic gravity wave [1]
※ Frequency of detection of gravity wave from coalescence of neutron binary stars:40 events / year [1]
※ Frequency of gravitational wave detection from coalescing of binary of black holes: 0.4 ~ 1,000 events / year [6]

Gravity is very weak compared to electromagnetic force:10 ^ -40times [7]
○Wavelength of gravitational wave:1.5 × 10 ^ 7 m (Earth diameter:1.27 × 10 ^ 7 m) or more
○"Gravitational waves go through everything. They are hardly affected by what they pass through, and that means that they are perfect messengers," said Prof Bernard Schutz, from Cardiff University, UK. [3]

○In the framework of quantum field theory, the graviton is the name given to a hypothetical elementary particle speculated to be the force carrier that mediates gravity. However the graviton is not yet proven to exist and no reconciliation yet exists between general relativity which describes gravity, and the Standard Model which describes all other fundamental forces.
※In the closed string, the state with the lowest energy is gravity.

29−2 What can we know and what is possible by the gravitational wave
1)Direct observation of black holes
2)Construction of quantum gravity theory, the integration of general relativity and quantum theory (construction of theory to integrate the four forces of the universe)
3)Direct observation of the big ban and the earlier of the universe
4)Communication in the universe or between the parallel universe

29−2−1 Direct observation of black holes
○Nothing can escape from a black hole, so it is impossible to see one directly. (Quantum field theory does predict that black holes give off an extremely tiny amount of thermal radiation, but it's so little that it we can't detect it from Earth.)
○Measurement of the waveform and amplitude of the gravitational waves from a black hole merger event makes possible accurate determination of its distance. [8]
○The accumulation of black hole merger data from cosmologically distant events may help to create more precise models of the history of the expansion of the universe and the nature of the dark energy that influences it. [8]

29−2−2 Construction of quantum gravity theory, the integration of general relativity and quantum theory
○One of the difficulties of quantum gravity is that quantum gravitational effects are only expected to become apparent near the Planck scale, a scale far smaller in distance (equivalently, far larger in energy) than what is currently accessible at high energy particle accelerators. [9]
○A quantum gravity theory is required in order to understand problems involving the combination of very high energy and very small dimensions of space, such as the behavior of black holes, and the origin of the universe. [9]

29−2−3 Direct observation of the big ban and the earlier of the universe
○What is currently observable is only the surface of the big bang.
○If we observe primordial gravitational waves, the inside of the big bang can be seen. Their detection exclude different models of inflation. Their detection exclude different models of inflation.

※The universe expanded approximately 10 ^ 30 times in the inflation era. In addition, since the transition to Friedman space-time, The universe inflated about 10 ^ 60 times together. Therefore, information of the initial Planck scale has not been disturbed by the Big Bang which come after inflation.

29−2−4 Communication in the universe or between the parallel universe
○Because graviton travels through the extra dimensions, communication of between parallel universes of using the gravitational waves can be expected. [10] [11]

29−3 Observation of gravitational waves
29−3−1 LIGO(Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)
LIGO is one side of the 4km michelson laser interferometer.
LIGO succeeded in direct observation of gravitational waves in 2015. [3] [4] Gravitational waves are a prediction of the Theory of General Relativity.
LIGO [5]

LIGO’s passive damping system holds the all-important mirrors perfectly still through a 4-stage pendulum called a "quad". [12]


29−3−2 eLISA(Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)[13]
○The eLISA concept has a constellation of three spacecraft, arranged in an equilateral triangle with 1 million-kilometre arms as a ESA(European Space Agency) mission.
LISA is good at gravitational wave detection at low frequencies than LIGO and VIRGO.
○A tentative launch date is 2034.

1. Gravitational wave - Wikipedia
2. LIGO”What are Gravitational Waves?”
3. Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News “Einstein's gravitational waves 'seen' from black holes”
4. Maddie Stone”Scientists Have Detected Gravitational Waves Again” 2016
5. Calla Cofield”Gravitational Wave Detector Finds Double Colliding Black Holes — Again (Woot!)”at SPACE.com 20160615
6 .Thomas W. Baumgarte and Stuart L. Shapiro”Binary black hole mergers”at feature article
7. “What force in the universe is the strongest or the most powerful?”at physlink.com
8.First observation of gravitational waves - Wikipedia
9. Quantum gravity (QG) - Wikipedia
10. No.28 The Parallel Universe
11. No.96 Communication with the alien
12. LIGOLIGO Technology”
13. Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna - Wikipedia

29 重力波 #重力 #宇宙

29 重力波 #重力 #宇宙

29−1 重力波とは [1]
重力波( gravitational wave)は、時空のゆがみが波動として光速で伝播する現象。巨大質量をもつ天体光速に近い速度で運動するときに強く発生する。
2016年2月にLIGOとVirgoのチームは2つのブラックホールの衝突から重力波の最初の直接検出に成功した。また、2016年6月に2度目の検出に成功した。[2] [3]

※2つのブラックホールの衝突から発生する重力波(その1)(Credit: LIGO)[3]

※2つのブラックホールの衝突から発生する重力波(その2)(ILLUSTRATION BY C. HENZE, NASA) [2]

○期待される重力波源:超新星爆発中性子星ブラックホール連星系、原子重力波 [4]
中性子連星の合体からの重力波の検出頻度:10回/年 [5]
ブラックホール連星の合体からの重力波の検出頻度:0.4〜1,000回/年 [5]

○重力は電磁気力に比べて非常に弱い:10^−36倍 [4]


29−2 重力波により何が分かり、何が可能になるのか?

29−2−1 ブラックホールの直接的観測 [2] [3] [7]

29−2−2 量子重力理論の構築、一般相対性理論量子論の統合(宇宙の4つの力を統合する理論の構築)
ブラックホールのように重力が極大な場所を研究できると、量子力学に重力を組み込む量子重力理論の構築が可能になるかもしれない。[2] [7] [8]

29−2−3 ビッグバンビッグバン以前の宇宙の直接観測[2]


29−2−4 宇宙や並行宇宙間の交信
重力子余剰次元を伝わるため、重力波を使っての並行宇宙同士の交信が期待できる。[7] [8]

29−3 重力波の観測
29−3−1 LIGO(ライゴLaser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)
2015年重力波の直接観測に成功した。[2] [3] これにより一般相対性理論が完全に証明された。
LIGO [10]



29−3−2 宇宙重力波望遠鏡eLISA(Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna)[12]
○3台の衛星で、一辺が100万kmレーザー干渉計を形成するもので、ESA( European Space Agency)によって進められている。

【参 考】
1. 重力波 - Wikipedia
2. Nadia Drake/訳=三枝小夜子“重力波、世紀の発見をもたらした壮大な物語” at NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 日本版 20160212
3. Michael Greshko/訳=三枝小夜子” 2度目の重力波観測、天文学はいよいよ新時代へ”at NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 日本版 20160617
4. 大原謙一”重力波天文学“ 201404
6. 江口 徹“理論で「ひも」解く宇宙”at 東京大学理学部大学院HP
7.No.28 並行宇宙
8. 量子重力理論 - Wikipedia
9. No.96 宇宙人との交信
10. Robert Naeye”Gravitational Wave Detection Heralds New Era”at SKY & TELESCOPE 2016
11. LIGOLIGO Technology”
12. 宇宙重力波望遠鏡 - Wikipedia


28 The Parallel Universe #ParallelUniverse

28 The Parallel Universe #ParallelUniverse

28−1  Multiverse[1]
28−1−1 Superstring theory and Brane cosmology
○In superstring theory we have 10-dimensional spacetime. (Dimensions that exceeds the 4-dimension are extra dimensions)
○Superstring theory suggests that the Big Bang there was many times. In other words, the universe is the multi instead of one, so that there are parallel universe.
○In the parallel universe, the laws of physics are different, but superstring theory's seems applicable.
○Since all particles except graviton which is a closed string can not be separated from braneworld, it is not possible to replace the substances. [2]
○Graviton is to travel the extra dimensions, so parallel universe(braneworld) each other can communicate using a gravity wave. [2]
○In this theory, it has assumed the collision of braneworlds and anti-braneworlds . [2]

○Black hole rotating at high speed collapses in a ring shape. The middle of the ring is likely to be the gateway to the parallel universe.[3]

28−1−2 Inflation theory and multiple occurrence of universe (multi-production of universe) [2] [4]
・1982 Katsuhiko Sato other recommendations
○Many mini-universe are produced from a unitary universe.
○Mini-universe are completely detached from its parent universe.
○To make the child the universe there is a need to take inflation artificially.
○It is made possible by making a large area of highly vacuum energy in the universe.
○However, there is a need to pull heat well.
○Since vacuum energy remains slightly in the current universe, it can be expected that multi-universe is born naturally when vacuum energy undergoes a phase transition.

28−1−3 Real universe and Imaginary universe:Structure of the universe☆(2015)
☆If the universe (the Real universe) including the Milky Way galaxy was born from a quantum fluctuation, the universe (the Imaginary universe) including quantum fluctuations is assumed on the outside.
☆In the Imaginary universe it can be estimated to exist other universe(Parallel universe) born from quantum fluctuations.

☆From the birth of the Real universe to Big Bang
• If the quantum fluctuation does not exceed the threshold, the resulting pair of substance and antimatter within the fluctuation disappears. = The Real universe is not born.
• When the quantum fluctuation exceeds a threshold value, the symmetry of matter and anti-matter brakes, and antimatter is to rapidly expand the space-time after 1e-36 seconds. ( The size of the Real universe (1e-27m) is much smaller than atom (1e-10m) ⇒3 millimeters (1e-3m): The Inflation: inflation rate is 60-fold of light speed.)
(In the reverse case, the Real universe is not born because space-time collapses.)

  • Immediately after that, (1e-36 seconds after → 1e-32 seconds after) substance of high temperature causes the Big Bang.

(The size of the Real universe : 3 mm (1e-3m) ⇒10cm (1e-1m))

☆The structure of the Real universe
・Since the outside of the Real universe is made up of antimatter, and it is also the same as the outside of parallel universe, they repel each other.

☆Future of the Real universe

  • The Real universe will evaporate at the end of continuing expansion. = Disappearance of the result of a large fluctuation that occurred in the Imaginary universe

• Before evaporation, the outer shell of antimatter in the Real universe will become brittle, and if it conflicts with other parallel universe, both universe will collapse.
・That is, if the matter that was scattered by the collision of the other two parallel universes collides with the outer shell of the Real universe, we might be able to measure it in quantum.

28−2 Multiverse and Anthropic principle [7]
・In most multiverse, human beings are not born.
・For example・・・
・・・Even if just a little different from the electromagnetic force and the strong force of the four forces of nature, there is no fact that carbon is synthesized in the interior of the star.
・・・In the four-dimensional universe, because gravity and electromagnetic force is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance, the structure of galaxies and planetary systems or the structure of the atom becomes unstable.

・In other words・・・
・This universe is beautifully designed as if it was trying to present human. : Anthropic principle

28−3 Communication between the parallel universes
○In M-theory, it has to be capable of interacting with other universe through gravity. [1] [2]

28−4 Observation
○At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA plans to observe the gravity of parallel universe using Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in 2035. [6]

1.Space.com/”5 Reasons We May Live in a Multiverse”20121207
2.「気が遠くなる未来の宇宙のはなし(The story of the future of the universe mind-boggling)」Ktsuhiko Sato(2013)
3.Michio Kaku / New York incandescent classroom " amazing prophecy of "Theory of Everything;TOE"" 20150403
4.Multi-production of universes by first-order phase transition of a vacuum
5. Anthropic principle - Wikipedia
6. LISA Project Office

28 並行宇宙 #並行宇宙 #宇宙

28 並行宇宙 #並行宇宙 #宇宙

28−1 多元宇宙(マルチバース)[1][2]
28−1−1 超弦理論とブレーン(薄膜)宇宙モデル [3]


28−1−2 インフレーション理論と宇宙の多重発生(マルチプロダクション)[3] [5][6]
1982年 佐藤勝彦ほかの提言

28−1−3 実宇宙と虚宇宙:宇宙の構造☆(2015)




28−2 マルチバース人間原理 [8]


28−3 並行宇宙間の交信
重力波は次元を超えるので、超弦理論やM理論では、重力を通して他の宇宙と相互作用し得るとしている。 [1] [3]

28−4 観測
NASAジェット推進研究所およびESAでは、2035年に、宇宙重力波望遠鏡(Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA):レーザー干渉計)を使って並行宇宙の重力を観測する予定だ。[8][9]

【参 考】
1.多元宇宙論 - Wikipedia
2.Space.com/”5 Reasons We May Live in a Multiverse”20121207
5. Multi-production of universes by first-order phase transition of a vacuum
6. 宇宙の創成と未来 佐藤勝彦
7. 人間原理 - Wikipedia
8. 宇宙重力波望遠鏡 - Wikipedia
9.LISA Project Office

27 Entropic gravity/Emergent gravity #Gravity #universe

27 Entropic gravity/Emergent gravity #Gravity #universe

27−1 Outline
○Entropic gravity, also known as emergent gravity, is a theory in modern physics that describes gravity as an entropic force. [1]

○In 2009, Erik Verlinde disclosed a conceptual model that describes gravity as an entropic force. He argues (similar to Jacobson's result) that gravity is a consequence of the "information associated with the positions of material bodies". This model combines the thermodynamic approach to gravity with Gerard 't Hooft's holographic principle. It implies that gravity is not a fundamental interaction, but an emergent phenomenon which arises from the statistical behavior of microscopic degrees of freedom encoded on a holographic screen. [1]

○The theory holds that when gravity becomes vanishingly weak—levels seen only at interstellar distances—it diverges from its classically understood nature and its strength begins to decay linearly with distance from a mass. [1]

○From this theory it is not necessary to assume dark matter.

○The theory has been controversial within the physics community but has sparked research and experiments to test its validity. [1]

27−2 Thermodynamics and the Laws of Newton
・・・Based on the paper by Erik Verlinde in 2010 [2]

Gravity is considerably harder to combine with quantum mechanics than all the other forces. Also string theory and its related developments have given several indications in this direction.

○The universality of gravity suggests that its emergence should be understood from
general principles that are independent of the specific details of the underlying microscopic theory.Changes in this entropy when matter is displaced leads to an entropic force, which as we will show takes the form of gravity. Its origin therefore lies in the tendency of the microscopic theory to maximize its entropy.

○The conceptual ideas behind the emergence of spacetime and gravity appear to be general and are in principle applicable to other geometries than Anti-de Sitter space:a universe closer to our own, namely de Sitter space.

○The first indication of the emergent nature of spacetime and gravity comes from the laws of black hole thermodynamics. A central role herein is played by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and Hawking temperature given by

Here A denotes the area of the horizon and κ equals the surface acceleration.
○ In thermodynamics of ordinary materials, entropy is proportional to volume, but in black holes it is proportional to surface area.→Holographic principle

※The formula of Bekenstein-Hawking holds in any dimension of gravity theory, G is the Newton's constant in that dimension.

Newton's law can be obtained from the law of thermodynamics as follows.
(1)Particle and Entropy
Motivated by Bekenstein's argument, as the particles of mass m approach a screen, the entropy change ΔS on the screen becomes,

where kB is Boltzman's constant.
※ Entropy :
1) In thermodynamics (an area of physics dealing with heat), entropy is a measure of "disorder" in the physical system of matter and energy.
2) Entropy is a measure of the number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have. In this sense, entropy is a measure of uncertainty or randomness.

When Δx approaches the Compton wavelength,

The main content of this equation is simply that there is an entropy change perpendicular to the screen proportional to the mass m and the displacement Δx.

Figure:A particle with mass approaches a part of the holographic screen.

※ Compton wavelength:It is a physical constant representing the mass of a particle as its length.

※ Compton wavelength of electrons: λe = 2.42 × 10 ^-12 m

(2)Entropic force
How does force arise?
Acceleration occurs when force is applied, which is observed as temperature and entropy.

FΔx = TΔS (first law of thermodynamics)

(3)Holographic principle
Now suppose our boundary (screen) forms a closed surface. More specically, let us assume it is a sphere. The number of bits(N) is proportional to the area.

Figure:A spherical holographic screen

A: Surface area of sphere 

c is the speed of light, ℏ is the Planck constant

※Holographic principle: The idea discovered in the field of superstring theory that information of a space can be regarded as being encoded on its boundary surface.
・For example, entropy of black hole is proportional to its surface area.
・Holographic principle is closely related to the fundamental nature of quantum theory called "quantum entanglement ".

(4)Energy and number of states (amount of information)
・Assume that there is a total energy E in this spherical holographic screen.
・Also, given the assumption that energy is equally divided into the number of states N (bits) within the boundary (law of equipartition of energy)

The energy E is proportional to the mass M when the mass M is sufficiently larger than m.

T is absolute temperature.

※This fact could be true even when equipartition is not strictly obeyed.

Solving equations (1) to (4), we have recovered Newton's law of gravitation.

○The results of this paper suggest gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.

○The equivalence principle of acceleration and gravity are both emergent phenomena.

○Furthermore, we can obtain the Einstein equation which generalizes Newton's law. [3]

○ Conclusion
・It is time we nally do away with gravity as a fundamental force. If gravity is emergent, so is space time geometry. Gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.
・For instance, the way redshifts arise from entropy gradients could lead to many new insights.

1. Entropic gravityWikipedia
2. Erik Verlinde “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton“ 20100106
3. T. Jacobson, \Thermodynamics of space-time: The Einstein equation of state,"
Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995)

【Change log】
20171111 Newly posted
20171209 Addition of “ Thermodynamics and the Laws of Newton

27 エントロピック重力/創発的重力 #重力 #宇宙

27 エントロピック重力/創発的重力 #重力 #宇宙

27−1 概要
○エントロピック重力(Entropic gravity)または創発的重力(emergent gravity)は、現代物理学の理論であり、重力をエントロピックな力として記述する。[1]





29−2 熱力学ニュートンの法則 
・・・2010年のエリック・ヴァーリンデの論文を元に [4]








kB はボルツマン定数
1) 熱力学(熱を扱う物理学の一領域)では、エントロピーは物質とエネルギーの物理系における"無秩序"の尺度。
2) 対象とする系がとりうる状態の数がどのくらいあるかを表す物理量。





※電子のコンプトン波長: λe=2.42×10−12 m


FΔx=T∆S (熱力学第1法則)

ここでスクリーンが球面とすると、ホログラフィック原理( holographic principle)により、スクリーン内の状態数(情報量:N)は面積に比例する。



c は光速、ℏ は Planck 定数

・ホログラフィック原理は 「量子もつれ(量子エンタングルメント)」という量子論の基本的な性質と深く関係している。



T は絶対温度



The results of this paper suggest gravity arises as an entropic force, once space and time themselves have emerged.



○結 論

【参 照】
2.“ダークマター存在せず? - 「エントロピック重力理論」と観測データが一致2-“荒井聡
at マイナビニュース 2016/12/22
3.Entropic gravityWikipedia
4.Erik Verlinde “On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton(重力の起源とニュートンの法則)“ 20100106
5.T. Jacobson, \Thermodynamics of space-time: The Einstein equation of state,"
Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995)

6.太田 信義“重力理論と熱力学”2010
7.百武慶文“重力は基本的な力か!? E. Verlindeの仕事の紹介”
8. Masahiro Hotta”エントロピック重力理論” at Quantum Universe 20161225

20171111 新規
20171209 「熱力学ニュートンの法則」の追加

26  Loop Quantum Gravity(LQG)  #Gravity #universe

26  Loop Quantum Gravity(LQG)  #Gravity #universe

[Electromagnetic force + Weak interaction+Strong interaction + Gravity]
・LQG is an attempt to merge quantum mechanics and general relativity. [1]
・Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.

26−1 Overview [1]
○In the loop models, the basic structure of space-time turns out to be discrete. In such discrete space-times, there are smallest values for volumes and areas that are not divisible any farther.
○The granular structure of space-time gets rid of the infinities that plague quantum field theory.
○Elementary particles for each type, the rotational speed takes the value of the discrete, as the basic number of Planck constant. For example, an electron rotates at half the speed of Planck constant.

<Decide the direction of the space from the spin direction of the particle>
・In the 1950s, by utilizing this principles of the spin, "the Spin network" theory which defines the direction of each point in space from the direction of the electron spin published by Penrose.
・As a specific method, the theory represents a material at a point, and represents the direction at a line, and make a constant volume by planes perpendicular to the line.
・The predicted size of this structure is the Planck length, which is approximately 10−35 meters.
・Space can be viewed as an extremely fine fabric or network "woven" of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks.
・This change in spin network indicates the presence of gravity and elementary particles.
・The granular structure of space-time that is implied by spin networks also gets rid of the infinities that plague quantum field theory.

※Spin networks [2]

<Loop quantum gravity theory creates space, gravity and substance at a time>
・The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam.
・Spin form changes discretely.
• The time difference is 1 Planck seconds of the change (10-43 seconds), and the time that people feel is what this very short time is stacked.
・The main output of LQG is a physical picture of space where space is granular. It has the same nature as the granularity of the photons in the quantum theory of electromagnetism and the discrete levels of the energy of the atoms.

26−2 Difference from super string theory
1)In string theory( a quantum theories of gravity) one generally starts with quantized excitations on top of a classically fixed background. LQG is thus described as background dependent. In contrast, LQG, like general relativity, is manifestly background independent. [1]
2)Super string theory requires that space-time have 10 dimensions; LQG is formulated in 4 dimensions. [3]
3)String theory also implies the existence of supersymmetry, in which all known particles have yet-undiscovered partners. Supersymmetry isn’t a feature of LQG. [1] [3]
4)In loop quantum gravity, there is no big bang singularity; instead, the universe´s history can be traced infinitely far into the past, step by step. [2]
※An inflationary expansion might have been driven by quantum-gravitational effects. [4]

26−3 Tasks
○Quantum gravity effects are notoriously difficult to measure because the Planck length is so incredibly small. However recently physicists have started to consider the possibility of measuring quantum gravity effects. [5]
○The Universe can be used as a laboratory to test quantum gravity effects. First, there are accelerators in distant galaxies that produced gamma burst, 10 billion years ago, particles with energies much higher than we can produce in even the largest man-made accelerators, 10 million times higher. Secondly, due to the long times and vast distances involved, effects such as the difference in speeds of these particles (speed of light is energy dependent according to LQG) can be detected over these long distances and times. [4] [6]

○In 2015, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had detected gravitational waves from a pair of black holes merging. [7] [8]

○We can not fully study science with something like a unified theory - Freeman Dyson explains the reason with Gödel's incompleteness theorems

1. Loop quantum gravity - Wikipedia
2. Loop quantum gravityEinstein Online
3.String Theory Meets Loop Quantum Gravity | Quanta Magazine
4. Carol Rovelli“Loop quantum gravity
5.Quantum gravity (QG) - Wikipedia
6.Duality of Spacetime and Matter - NCF.ca
7.Gravitational wave - Wikipedia
8.No.31 Gravitational Wave

【Change log】
20170421 Split into 3 items
20171030 Addition of Freeman-Dyson's words to tasks.

26 ループ量子重力理論 #重力 #宇宙

26 ループ量子重力理論 #重力 #宇宙


26−1 概要 [1][2]





26−2 超弦理論との相違

26−3 課題・今後の展開
○空間の構造が離散的だとすると,そこを伝わる光のスピードは波長によってわずかに異なる。はるか遠くの宇宙で発生したガンマ線バーストの光が,波長によってわずかな時間差をもって地球に届くことが検出されれば,理論を実証できる。[5] [6]

2015年 カリフォルニア工科大とマサチューセッツ工科大などの共同研究チームが重力波を初検出。 [7]


1. ループ量子重力理論 - Wikipedia
2. 教えて!goo
3.Loop quantum gravityEinstein Online
4.リー・スモーリン ”時空の原子を追うループ量子重力理論”
5.Carol Rovelli“Loop quantum gravity
6.産経新聞 20160212
7.No. 29 重力波

20170421 3項目に分割
20171030 今後の展開にフリーマン・ダイソンの言葉を追加。