スタジオグーダ!(Studio Gooda!)


82 The History of the Earth #Past&Future #Universe

82 The History of the Earth #Past&Future #Universe

13.7 billion years ago Big Bang
13.5 billion years ago Birth of stars and Milky Way galaxy [1]

※ [2]

4.6 billion years ago  Formation of The Solar system and Earth (primitive atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium).
4.3-4.0 billion years ago  Ocean was born
3.8 billion years ago Birth of unicellular organisms
2.4〜2.1 billion years ago The oldest ice age. (Huronian glaciation)
750〜700 million years ago Sturtian glaciations
640 million years ago Marinoan glaciation・・・Snowball Earth

※The Snowball Earth [3]

600 million years ago Birth and explosion of multicellular organisms(the Cambrian)
500 million years ago  Creature won the brain.
460〜430 million years ago Little ice age(Andean-Saharan glaciation)
・・・Two events occurred that killed off 60% to 70% of all species. [4]
※Other causes :Gamma ray burst caused by supernova explosion occurred within 6000 light years
400 million years ago Plants advanced the land from the sea.
375 〜360 million years ago Expansion period of glacier( Karoo Ice Age)
   ・・・a prolonged series eliminated at least 70% of all species [4]
・・・There are also theories that the collision of asteroids is the cause of extinction.
360 million years ago Animal’s landing
300 million years ago   Increase of insects (cockroaches = living fossil)
Emergence of reptiles
250 million years ago Mass extinction of lives (Permian)
・・・Earth's largest extinction killed 90% to 96% of all species [4]
230 million years ago Emergence of dinosaurs
225 million years ago   Emergence of mammals
220 million years ago   Mass extinction of lives
・・・75% of all species became extinct [4]
150 million years ago   Emergence of archaeopteryx
140 million years ago   Division of Australian continent
100 million years ago  Golden age of dinosaurs (The average temperature was about 23℃. Temperature of current average is 15℃.)
66 million years ago Mass extinction of organisms= Extinction of dinosaurs(Collision of comet(about 10km diameter))
・・・75% of all species became extinct. [4]
Emergence of primates(Ability to synthesize vitamin C is lost)

40 million years ago Last ice age
25 million years ago The oldest fossil that seems to be apes
10 million 〜5 million years ago The formation of the Great Rift Valley in Africa began.
about 6 million 〜 5 million years ago The differentiation of Humans and chimpanzees
about 2.5 million 〜 1.8 million years ago  Start of Stone tools
1.7 million years ago  Human beings born
780,000 years ago The last pole shift of Geomagnetism
500,000 years ago  Peking man
230,000 years ago   Emergence of Neanderthals ・・・Use of stone tools
200,000 〜190,000 years ago  Emergence of Homo sapiens (present people)
160,000 ± 40,000 years ago   Mitochondrial Eve in Africa
(150 000 years ago   polar bear and brown bear was divided)
100,000 years ago〜 Modern humans (Homo sapiens) were spread out of the Africa.
(It was lower about 5-8 degrees in average temperature than the current:The difference between the annual average temperature in Tokyo and Sapporo. Sea level was 120m lower than now. )
70,000 years ago 〜  The last ice age
10,000 years ago   The end of the last ice age
30,000 years ago   Extinction of Neanderthal
30,000 〜 20,000 years ago Mongoloid passed to the Americas.
14,000 〜10,000 years ago Humanity tamed the dog.
13 000 years ago  Japanese archipelago became the island.
10,000 years ago  The end of the last ice age

A.C. 800 - 1300 The average temperature is higher than the present by 1 ° C or more. In the United Kingdom grapes were grown, Greenland was not covered with ice. [5]

20th century  Development of science and technology, the explosive growth of population, globalization, world war, environmental destruction and resource depletion concerns
The 21st century    Nuclear fusion power generation. Development of Artificial intelligence, Biotechnology and Nanotechnology. Multi-polar world.

1. Milky Way - Wikipedia
2. Chronology of the universe - Wikipedia
3.Credit: Stocktrek Images, Inc. / Alamy
4. Mass Extinction Event - Wikipedia
5.Michael Le Page”Climate myths: It was warmer during the Medieval period, with vineyards in England”at newscientist.com 20070516

82 地球の歴史 #過去と未来 #宇宙

82 地球の歴史 #過去と未来 #宇宙

137億年前   ビッグバン
135億年前   星の誕生・天の川銀河の誕生 [1]

※ [2]

46億年前    太陽系地球誕生(原始大気は、主にヘリウムと水素
43〜40億年前頃  海洋が誕生
38億年前    単細胞生物誕生
24〜21億年前頃  最も古い氷河期(ヒューロニアン氷期
7億5千万年前〜7億年前 スターティア氷期
6.4億年前    マリノア氷期・・・スノーボールアース

スノーボールアース [3]

6億年前     多細胞生物の誕生・爆発的な増加(カンブリア爆発)
5億年前     生物が脳を獲得
4億6千万年前〜4億3千万年前 小さな氷河期アンデスサハラ氷期
・・・全生物種の85%が絶滅 [4]
4億年前     植物の上陸
3億7千万年前  氷河の拡大期(カルー氷期 Karoo Ice Age)
・・・全生物種の82%が絶滅 [4]
3億6千万年前  動物の上陸
3億年前     昆虫の増加(ゴキブリ=生きている化石
2億5千万年前  生物の大量絶滅ペルム紀)。・・・95%の生物種が絶滅 [4]
2億3000万年前  恐竜の出現
2億2500万年前  哺乳類の出現
2億1500万年前  全生物種の76%が絶滅 [4]
1億5千万年前  始祖鳥の出現
1億4千万年前  オーストラリア大陸の分裂
1億年前     恐竜の全盛時代(平均気温23℃。現在の平均気温は約15℃)
6,600万年前   生物の大量絶滅恐竜の絶滅(彗星(直径10km程度)の衝突)
         ・・・全生物種の70%が絶滅 [4]

4000万年前〜  最終氷期
2500万年前    最古の類人猿と思われる化石
1000万〜500万年前  アフリカグレート・リフト・バレーの形成が始まる。
600万〜500万年前 ヒトとチンパンジーが分化
250万〜180万年前 - この頃、石器の使用がはじまった。
170万年前    人類誕生
78万年前   磁極の逆転
50万年前   北京原人
23万年前    ネアンデルタール人の出現・・・石器の使用
20万〜19万年前 ホモ・サピエンス(現在のヒト)の出現
16±4万年前  アフリカミトコンドリア・イブ
(15万年前   ヒグマとシロクマが分かれる)
7万年前〜    最終氷期
(現在よりも平均気温で5〜8度ほど低かった。:東京札幌の年平均気温の差。海面は今より 120mも低い。)
3万年前    ネアンデルタール人が絶滅
3万〜2万年  モンゴロイドがアメリカ大陸に渡る。
1万4000〜約1万年前 イヌを飼い慣らした
1万3000年前  日本が島化
1万年前      間氷期の始まり

A.C.800〜1300年 平均気温が現在よりも1℃以上高い。イギリスではブドウ栽培され、グリーンランドは氷で覆われていなかった。 [5]

20世紀     科学技術の発達、人口の爆発的増加、国際化、世界大戦環境破壊や資源枯渇の懸念。
21世紀     核融合発電。人工知能、バイオ、ナノ技術の発展。多極化する世界

【参 照】
1. 銀河系 - Wikipedia
2. Chronology of the universe - Wikipedia
3. スノーボールアース - Wikipedia
4.大量絶滅 - Wikipedia
5.Michael Le Page”Climate myths: It was warmer during the Medieval period, with vineyards in England”at newscientist.com 20070516

81 Exit to the another universe:Wormhole #Black Hole # Wormhole

81 Exit to the another universe:Wormhole #Black Hole # Wormhole

81−1 Black hole [1]
○Black hole is a "hole" opened in space-time.
○In the case of a charged or rotating black hole, it is possible to avoid the singularity.
・Extending these solutions as far as possible reveals the hypothetical possibility of exiting the black hole into a different spacetime with the black hole acting as a wormhole.
・The possibility of traveling to another universe is, however, only theoretical since any perturbation would destroy this possibility.

※Conceptual diagram of a wormhole [2]

○Penrose diagram [3]:It introduces a system of representing distant spacetime by shrinking or "crunching" distances that are further away. Penrose diagrams are useful in the study of asymptotic properties of spacetimes and singularities.

・Where the vertical dimension represents time, and the horizontal dimension represents space.
・The center of the figure, the intersection of event horizon is a wormhole.

81−2 How to make wormhole [4]
・Rotate the white dwarfs in the form of a ring, creating a vortex (wormhole) in space.
・Injecting a negative energy in the vortex to stabilize the wormhole.

※To create a wormhole diameter 1 m, it is necessary to convert the same mass of Jupiter to negative energy. [5]

☆First of all, we need to find a white dwarf that rotates in a ring shape.

81−3 How to find the wormhole [5]
・When it comes to wormhole hunting, said Nagoya University astrophysicist Fumio Abe, looking for the distant signatures of smaller gravitational lenses, called microlenses, is the way to go

・Unfortunately, these impromptu wormholes would be super small, appearing at the Planck scale. That’s about 10-33 centimeters long. In other words, the wormhole would be so small that it'd be almost impossible to detect. [6]

81−4 Wormholes and Quantum en¬¬tanglement
○Quantum mechanics’ en¬¬tanglement and general relativity’s wormholes may actually be equivalent—the same phenomena described differently. [7]

・The Penrose diagram above is the maximally extended Schwarzschild black hole solution in a flat space (Euclidean space) close to our universe, but a similar figure can be drawn also in anti-de Sitter space (Ads). [8]

・In the penrose diagram of anti-de Sitter space (Ads), we can set a plane that can be described by t Quantum Field Theory (CFT) at the boundary between the two space-time across the wormhole.
• This plane is in quantum entanglement state via the wormhole. [9]

1. Black hole - Wikipedia
2. Wormhole - Wikipedia
3. Penrose diagrams - JILA
4. Morgan Freeman “Through The Wormhole s04e03 Can We Survive the Death of the Sun”36:35/1:04:14
7. Juan Maldacena “Black Holes, Wormholes and the Secrets of Quantum Spacetime
8. Black-Hole Solutions to Einstein's Equations in the Presence of Matter and Modifications of Gravitation in Extra Dimensions - Gouteraux, B. arXiv:1011.4941 [hep-th]
9. 中島林彦“ホログラフィ原理を解く”at 日経サイエンス 201701

【Change log】
20171222 Addition of Wormholes and Quantum en¬¬tanglement
20171227 Addition of Penrose diagrams

81 ブラックホールは別な宇宙の出入り口:ワームホール #ブラックホール #ワームホール

81 ブラックホールは別な宇宙の出入り口:ワームホール #ブラックホール #ワームホール

81−1 ブラックホール
ブラックホールは時空に開いた“穴” [1]

ワームホールの概念図 [3]



81−2 ワームホールの作り方


81−3 ワームホールの探し方 [6]


81−4 ワームホール量子もつれ



【参 照】
1. 宇宙情報センターJAXA“ホワイトホールとワームホール
2. ブラックホール - Wikipedia
3. ワームホール - Wikipedia
4. 中島林彦“ホログラフィ原理を解く”at 日経サイエンス 201701
5.ミチオ・カク”[NHK] モーガン・フリーマン 時空を超えて「太陽のない世界 人類は生存可能か?」”
“Through The Wormhole s04e03 Can We Survive the Death of the Sun”36:35/1:04:14
6.Dave Mosher”ワームホールの探し方:名古屋研究者の新論文”at WIRED 20101203
7. “ワームホールを利用した宇宙旅行は実現するのか?可能性はあり。(各国研究)”at カラパイア 20141104(原文あり)
8. J. マルダセナ “ワームホール量子もつれ 量子時空の謎”at SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 201611
9. Black-Hole Solutions to Einstein's Equations in the Presence of Matter and Modifications of Gravitation in Extra Dimensions - Gouteraux, B. arXiv:1011.4941 [hep-th]

20171222 ワームホール量子もつれの追加
20171227 ペンローズ図の追加

80 Black Hole #BlackHole

80 Black Hole #BlackHole

80−1 Travel to black hole
○September 2011 Supermassive black holes •at about 54.4 million light-years away in the direction of Virgo announced.
○In the case of a star whose mass is more than about 30 times the sun, it becomes a black hole.
※If we confine the mass of the earth to 1 cm, we can create a black hole

○Black holes have extremely strong gravity, even light could inhale as well as
substances nearby.

○Incidentally it takes about 100,000 years for 20 light years by the ship cruising speed of the current, so we will need about 300 billion years till the black hole in space travel ! ! !

(Reference) [2]
・ The theoretically expected cosmic jet that equivalents to the movement of the substance, and the X-rays emitted from the substance inhaled by the black holes are observed.
・ The white hole solution to which time reflection of the black hole is carried out exists in the solution of the Einstein equation.
 ・The information inhaled by the black hole is not lost.

80−2 Evaporation of Black hole:Hawking Radiation
1974 Stephen William Hawking
・One of the characteristics of the quantum theory is that there is no empty space thing.
・This may look empty at first glance, in a micro scale pair production of virtual particles of negative energy and positive energy always has been done.(Quantum fluctuation)

・Well, in just outside the area of the event horizon, positive-energy particles can escape from the black hole if energy is greater.
・On the other hand, negative energy particles are sucked into the black hole.

※event horizon:In the inner side than the event horizon, since the speed required to escape from the black hole is greater than the light speed, it is impossible to escape from there even light .

• Since the negative energy particles are inhaled, the energy of the black hole is reduced as a result, the black hole becomes smaller gradually.
・Black hole is going to "evaporation".
・Thee is a theory that final process of this evaporation is observed as a gamma-ray burst.
・At the time of the black hole evaporation is newly made protons and neutrons.
・And temperature at this time, also reached T = 10^32.

※Temperature of black hole:T

(k:the Boltzmann constant, M:the mass of the black hole)

○In general relativity (classical theory), even though light can not escape from the black holes, this evaporation is caused by the quantum effect.

○However, the time to partition evaporation is 10^145 years, that is orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe about 10^10 years. On the other hand, the mass of the black hole formed by the accelerator is considered to be around 10 ^ -27 [kg], and the evaporation time is 10 ^ -97 [sec].

○At present, it is not known sure thing about this process.

○There is a theory that through the mechanism of Hawking radiation, it is possible to recover the energy of the black hole. [3] [4] [5]

1. Yahoo! Japan News
2. Black hole - Wikipedia
3. The mystery of the black hole Scientific Seminar of the Physical Society of Japan 2004
Text "Einstein and physics in the 21st century"(August 5-6, 2004)
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Makoto.Natsuume
4. A Universe from Nothing. Lawrence M. Krauss -2012
5. Star Lifting - Wikipedia

【Change log】
20170307 Integration of Black Hole and Evaporation of Black hole
20171125 Correction of evaporation time

80 ブラックホール #ブラックホール

80 ブラックホール #ブラックホール

80−1 ブラックホールへの旅
○2011年9月 超巨大ブラックホールが、おとめ座の方向に約5440万光年離れた位


(参 考)[2]
・ 物質の運動に相当する宇宙ジェットや、ブラックホールに吸い込まれていく物質が出すと理論的に予想されるX線が観測されている。

80−2 ブラックホール蒸発:ホーキング放射

1974年 スティーヴン・ホーキング




(k:ボルツマン定数、 M:ブラックホールの質量)


○ただし、蒸発しきるまでの時間は、太陽質量程度の星では10^145[year] となり、宇宙年齢 10^10[year] より十分大きい。一方、加速器で形成されるブラックホールの質量は 10^−27[kg] 程度と考えられており、蒸発時間は 10^−97[sec]。


○ホーキング放射のメカニズムを介して、ブラックホールエネルギーを回収することができる、という説がある。[3] [4] [5]

【参 照】
2. ブラックホール- Wikipedia
3.ブラックホールの謎に迫る 2004年日本物理学会科学セミナー
エネルギー加速器研究機構 夏梅 誠
5. Star Lifting - Wikipedia

20170307 ブラックホールブラックホール蒸発の統合
20171125 蒸発時間の修正


2019 Songwriting Studio Gooda!

A pet dog living on Mars in 2030.
Owners are dead.
Every day, he do a healing dance in front of the grave.
He has not eaten for a long time.
But a robot dog that does not die.
He is waiting for human beings.

【新曲】火星の犬【New original song】 #新曲 #火星

【新曲】火星の犬【New original song】 #新曲 #火星
2019 Songwriting Studio Gooda!