Hatena::ブログ(Diary)

田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

2016-07-30

slip through (the cracks) #2

 facebookは人種差別的な表現のあるGIFを削除しました。削除されたGIFには,フロリダ州自警団員によって射殺されたTrayvon Martin君の写真が使われておりました。 

 記事の中で気になった表現は"slip through"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)で調べると「あっという間に過ぎる,<誤り・違法行為(をした人)などが> 調査[捜査]の目から漏れてしまう」などという意味がありました。Oxford Dictionaries.comには"slip (or fall) through the net"で"Escape from or be missed by something intended to catch or deal with one"と定義されております。多くのユーザーが利用している中で好ましくないものが投稿されていても見過ごされる場合があるようです。(Ume)

Facebook removes racist Spongebob Travyon Martin GIF

GIPHY says that it also tries to stop offensive material circulating but sometimes things slip through. Spokesman for the company, Simon Gibson, says,

"GIPHY goes a long way and pours tons of resources into vetting content and ensuring stuff like this doesn't surface, however, every now and then, something does slip through the cracks.

"We do pride ourselves on being nimble enough to address these things immediately (which is a big reason why Facebook trusts us powering their products) and are working towards ensuring instances like this are as close to zero as possible."

By Patrick Evans, BBC Social News and UGC team

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36910335

slip[fall] through the cracks - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

battery #2

東京オリンピックに向け,準備をしているのは競技場やテロ対策だけではありません。北朝鮮ミサイル実験を受け,ミサイル迎撃システムを最新のものにしました。

batteryはこれまでに「[法]暴行(罪)」(『ジーニアス英和辞典』第4版,大修館)という意味で採り上げられていますが,今回は「砲列, 砲台, 砲兵中隊」(『プログレッシブ英和中辞典小学館)という意味です。(Koyamamoto)

cf. http://d.hatena.ne.jp/A30/20130328/1364405047

Japan to upgrade Patriot batteries for 2020 Olympics

TOKYO — Japan is upgrading its Patriot PAC-3 missile defense system in time for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games, adding range and accuracy needed to intercept more advanced North Korean ballistic missiles, four sources with knowledge of the plan said.

The move represents the most significant upgrade to Japan’s missile defense system in a decade and is part of an increase in military spending in the region, where geopolitical tensions are rising.

http://www.japantoday.com/category/national/view/japan-to-upgrade-patriot-batteries-for-2020-olympics

EPSJ関東支部 第5回特別講演会のご案内

暑中お見舞い申し上げます。9月にロンドンから来日される,Michael Ashby先生とPatricia Ashby先生のダブル講演会を下記の日程で開催させていただきます。予約不要・聴講無料で,どなたでもご参加いただけます。

会場は200席のレクチャー・ホールですので,皆様お誘いあわせの上,奮ってご参加いただきたくお願い申し上げます。また,講演終了後には,講師を囲む食事会も予定しておりますので,併せてご参加をお待ち申し上げます。

関東支部長 松坂 ヒロシ

              記

日時: 2016年9月21日(水) 18時15分〜20時45分(受付開始18時05分)

会場: 専修大学神田キャンパス)7号館(大学院棟)3階 731教室

<講演1>

講師:Michael Ashby先生

Honorary Senior Lecturer in Phonetics at University College London

演題:Listening and measuring in phonetics: why Daniel Jones was better than Praat

<講演2>

講師:Patricia Ashby先生

   Emeritus Fellow to the University of Westminster, and

   National Teaching Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (UK)

演題:“Written” Intonation

※講演要旨等の詳細はポスターをご覧ください。

ポスターリンク:

http://www.waseda.jp/assoc-epsj/koenkai/tokubetsu_koenkai_5_2016.pdf

ご案内サイトへのリンク:

http://www.waseda.jp/assoc-epsj/meetings.html

会場アクセスへのリンク:

http://www.senshu-u.ac.jp/univguide/profile/access.html#kanda

本日の裏ゼミ

今日の夏休み(まだ試験期間ですが...)裏ゼミ終了。

本日から忘備録のため、ここにも学習内容と欠席者などのデータを記しておくことにしました。

今日は先週から続けている英検1級、TOEIC900以上レベルの語彙、表現プリントの#6~#7。timorous、licentious、emphysema、extrapolateなど、普段はお目にかかることのないbig wordの入力です。 これは8月一杯続け、9月のゼミ合宿までには難関語彙の下地作りをする予定です。

ゼミ生数名が参加。月曜日は難関語彙とTOEIC文法をと考えています。

夏休みにリラックスするのも一手ですが、うちのゼミ生は違います。努力は裏切りません。この子たちは育ちますよ。(UG)

upbeat #5

クリントン氏が民主党全国大会で指名受諾演説を行いました。

Clinton promises ‘clear-eyed’ vision

PHILADELPHIA (Reuters) — U.S. presidential candidate Hillary Clinton said on Thursday the challenges facing Americans demand steady leadership and a collective spirit, contrasting her character with what she described as a dangerous and volatile Donald Trump.

In the biggest speech of her more than 25-year-old career in the public eye, Clinton accepted the Democratic presidential nomination for the Nov. 8 election with a promise to make the United States a country that worked for everyone.

“We are clear-eyed about what our country is up against. But we are not afraid,” she said.

She presented a sharply more upbeat view of the country than her rival Trump did when he was formally nominated for president at last week’s Republican convention, and even turned one of Republican hero Ronald Reagan’s signature phrases against the real estate developer.

“He’s taken the Republican Party a long way, from ‘Morning in America’ to ‘Midnight in America,’” Clinton said. “He wants to divide us — from the rest of the world, and from each other.”

She portrayed Trump as volatile, saying “a man you can bait with a tweet is not a man we can trust with nuclear weapons.”

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003114270

今回取り上げるのはupbeatです。

Oxford dictionaries.com.では“Cheerful; optimistic”と定義されており、『ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版、大修館書店)で確認すると「(略式)楽観的な;快活な;楽しい」とありました。リズムの早い曲を聴くと、楽しくなる様子から意味がきていると思われます。

移民問題など排他的な主張が目立つトランプ氏に比べて、“upbeat view”は「前向きな姿勢」であることが表現されています。(flyingbird)

upbeat - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

strike an upbeat tone - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

upbeat#2 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

upbeat #3 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

専修大学トピック

専修大学が撮影に協力した以下の番組が本日放送されるそうです。

うちのゼミには昔、J系グループ(Heiseiなんとか)の熱心な追っかけ(groupie? まだ言うの?)が在籍していましたので、アップしておきます。

(久しぶりにA30にもどったUG)

番組名:「関ジャニ∞クロニクル」(フジテレビ系列)

放送日:7月30日(土)午後1:30〜2:00

※番組の都合により内容が変更される場合があります。

linguistic soup

小川龍馬さんは,野球指導のボランティア活動でセネガル子どもたちに野球を教えています。2015年1月から教えているそうです。


DAKAR — Ryoma Ogawa learnt baseball on the manicured pitches of his native Japan, but the young coach has hit a home run in Senegal with a ragtag team of kids, cultivating the arts of batting and fielding.

Ogawa’s job isn’t easy, especially with one significant barrier: “My French isn’t very good, but I repeat things a lot and I use a lot of gestures,” the 24-year-old admitted.

Many of the children—who play for free—only learn French at school, so the group’s linguistic soup is also composed of Senegal’s dominant language, Wolof, along with English words spoken in a Japanese accent learnt from coach.

http://www.japantoday.com/category/sports/view/japanese-coach-has-big-dreams-for-senegals-little-league

今回取り上げる表現は,“linguistic soup”です。そのまま直訳すると,「言葉のスープ」になりますが,意味が通じません。また,“alphabet soup”と何かしら関係があるのかなと少し疑問に思いました。そこで,意味を調べてみました。すると,“alphabet soup”と同じ意味であることが分かりました。こちらは以前ブログにも取り上げられていましたが,意味は,「(略語が多く)難解な言葉,理解困難な略語」になります。ここでは,子どもたちの間で使われている言葉を指しています。

また,“alphabet soup”は,ほかにも「アルファベットの文字をかたどった小さなパスタを入れたスープ」という意味もあります。小学生の頃,アルファベットスープを食べた記憶があり,こちらの方が個人的に親しみは,あります。(Nao)

alphabet soup - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

the highest office in the land

ヒラリー・クリントン国務長官が指名受諾演説を行って、女性初の大統領としての歴史をつくるとしました。

Hillary Clinton Makes History Accepting Democratic Nomination

Hillary Clinton has accepted the Democratic party's presidential nomination Thursday night in Philadelphia, making history as the first woman to be chosen to run for the highest office in the land by a major party in the United States.

"Today, we've reached a milestone in our nation's march toward a more perfect union: The first time that a major party has nominated a woman for President," Clinton said. "Standing here as my mother's daughter's, and my daughter's mother, I'm so happy this day has come."

"Happy for grandmothers and little girls and everyone in between. Happy for boys and men, too, because when any barrier falls in America, for anyone, it clears the way for everyone," she continued. "When there are no ceilings, the sky's the limit."

Clinton was clearly emotional as she walked on stage, and said: "I'm so happy this day has come."

http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/hillary-clinton-makes-history-accepting-democratic-nomination/story?id=40968289

“the highest office in the land”を取りあげます。officeには「地位, 職」という意味がありますが、これはThe Oval Office大統領執務室」のことを指しています。

日本語では「首相のイス」「総理のイス」という言い方をして首相の座のことを比喩的に表しますが、米国ではofficeを使っていることに違いを感じました。(lua)

shoot to fame 復習


世界的に活躍したピアニスト中村紘子さんが、26日に大腸がんのため自宅で死去しました。

Hiroko Nakamura, lauded pianist, dies at 72

Internationally acclaimed pianist Hiroko Nakamura, a former child prodigy who went on to become one of Japan's most famed performers, has died. She was 72.

Nakamura shot to fame in 1965 when she won a prize at the International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw. She went on to serve as a judge at many prestigious piano competitions around the globe

The pianist died from colorectal cancer on July 26.

Nakamura was born in Yamanashi Prefecture in 1944 and started learning the piano as a young child. In 1959, she won the top prize with special merit for piano at the Music Competition of Japan, one of the oldest and most prestigious music competitions in Japan. At the time she was just a third-grader at Keio Chutobu Junior High School.

She moved to New York to attend the Juilliard School of Music in 1963, and studied under pianist and famed educator Rosina Lhevinne. She finished fourth at the International Chopin Piano Competition in 1965, the youngest prize winner that year.

While playing concerts around the globe, she was also invited to judge at many prestigious competitions, including the International Tchaikovsky Competition and the International Chopin Piano Competition. She was also passionate about digging up hidden talents in Japan and taking them under her wing. She served as a judge for the Hamamatsu International Piano Competition for 12 years since 1997.

Nakamura was diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2014 and stepped down from the stage for treatment. She announced a comeback in June 2015, but took time off from August 2015, until she started performing again this spring.

Her funeral was attended by family members and close relatives on July 28. A memorial gathering for fans, friends and business associates is planned for the future.

http://www.asahi.com/sp/ajw/articles/AJ201607290055.html

今回注目した表現は、"shot to fame"です。『ウィズダム英和辞典』(第3版、三省堂)を引いたところ、"shoot to fame"で「」とありました。

LDOCEでは、"to suddenly become famous"と定義されていました。"shoot to stardom/prominence/celebrity"でも同じような意味になるようです。

ウィズダム英和辞典』には、同じ意味を持つ表現として、“find [rise to, achieve, win, gain, come to] fame”という表現が挙げられていました。ただ、LDOCEでそれぞれ調べたところ、“shoot to fame”にのみ“suddenly”が定義に含まれていたので、「急激に」というニュアンスを含ませることができるのだと思います。(Blue Sky)

今回の表現は以前にも取り上げられております。ご覧ください。

shoot to fame - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

make one’s case

アメリカ大統領選,そして東京都知事選と日米では選挙戦が盛り上がりを見せています。caseには「(論拠に基づく) «…という» 主張, 訴え, 申し立て «that節» ; «…を支持する/…に反対する» 論拠, 理由, 事実 」という意味があり,make one’s caseで「意見を述べる; 弁護をする, 主張をする」を意味します(『プログレッシブ英和中辞典小学館)。ヒラリー・クリントン氏に関する記事はTIMEから,都知事選JT Onlineからの引用です。(Koyamamoto)

How Hillary Clinton Made Her Case to America

Hillary Clinton strode into history books Thursday night with a call for Americans to rally behind her. “Join us” was a refrain as she moved toward the end of her speech — and toward what promises to be a divisive campaign to become the nation’s first female President.

I know that at a time when so much seems to be pulling us apart, it can be hard to imagine how we’ll ever pull together,” she said. “But I’m here to tell you tonight, progress is possible.”

http://time.com/4429815/dnc-hillary-clinton-speech-theme/?xid=homepage


Lesser-known candidates in the Tokyo gubernatorial race make their case

After largely being overlooked and receiving scant media coverage, 15 lesser-known candidates in Sunday’s Tokyo gubernatorial election had a last chance on Friday to make their case on how they would shake-up the mega city.

The 15, who include a journalist, entrepreneur and dentist, spoke in a joint appearance at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan in Tokyo. They are all polling well behind the three front-runners: Yuriko Koike, Hiroya Masuda and Shuntaro Torigoe.

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/07/29/national/politics-diplomacy/lesser-known-candidates-tokyo-gubernatorial-race-make-case/#.V5tg7BTEMmE

as right as rain 復習

ネコが洗濯機に入ってそのまま洗濯されてしまったという記事からです。病院での治療により、奇跡的に助かりました。

Bobby the kitten survives 60C washing machine cycle

A kitten that was accidentally trapped in a washing machine on a 60C cycle has made a full recovery.

Lisa Keefe, of the Meadows in Nottingham, did not realise her Bengal crossbreed Bobby had climbed inside the appliance for a nap.

She raced to get him out after hearing "a loud thudding noise" from inside the appliance.

A vet at the clinic who treated him said: "In my 15 years as a vet, I've never seen a case like this."

Owner 'petrified'

Nine-month-old Bobby was taken to Nottingham Pet Hospital on the verge of collapse and needed IV fluids to treat shock.

His brush with death has seen him nominated for a PDSA (People's Dispensary for Sick Animals) Pet Survivor award.

Ms Keefe, 47, said Bobby was known to climb in the machine and she had put him outside before putting in a new load.

But she said the curious puss must have snuck back in and hidden under a duvet before she switched on the appliance.

"As soon as I heard the noise I rushed to the machine and could see the colour of his fur mixed in with the quilt. I was petrified and raced to get him out," she said.

The kitten was in the washer "for about two minutes", vet James Kellow said.

"Bobby has learned his lesson the hard way, he doesn't go anywhere near the washer any more", his owner added.

Vet Tamsin Thomas said: "Bobby was on the verge of collapse as his body was soaked through and his temperature was dangerously low.

"We gently dried him out, kept him warm and gave him IV fluids to treat shock."

Mr Kellow, who treated Bobby, said the kitten had sore eyes from the detergent, but within a couple of hours was "as right as rain".

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-nottinghamshire-36912549

記事の中で気になった表現は、"as right as rain"です。

ジーニアス英和辞典』第4版(大修館)で"rain"を調べると、"(as) right as rain"で1.「すっかり元気になって」2.「(ショックから)完全に立ち直って」とありました。

医者の話によると、「洗濯洗剤のせいで目を痛めてしまったが、数時間後には治ってすっかり元気になった」とのことでした。(Akim)

健康な as right as rain - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

compulsory hospitalization

相模原市障がい者施設で起きた殺傷事件を受けて、安倍首相措置入院の在り方の見直しを検討するように指示しました。

Ministers ordered to review compulsory hospitalization measures after massacre

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has instructed Cabinet ministers concerned to review follow-up measures to deal with mentally unstable people compulsorily hospitalized for fear they could harm other people.

http://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20160729/p2a/00m/0na/003000c

今回は、「措置入院」が英語でどのように表されるか気になりました。「措置入院」とは、精神障害のある人が自分や他人を傷つける恐れがある場合に、行政が患者本人を強制的に入院させる制度のことです。

記事をいくつか確認してみると、“compulsory hospitalization”と表されていました。“compulsory”をLDOCEで調べてみると、“something that is compulsory must be done because it is the law or because someone in authority orders you to”と定義されており、「本人や家族の同意なしに強制的に行う〔入院させる〕」ことが分かります。(ninetails)

linchpin 復習

安倍首相8月3日内閣改造を行う方針を示しました。

Prime minister to reshuffle Cabinet on Wednesday

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said Friday that he will reshuffle his Cabinet on Wednesday.

Unveiling the plan during discussions with ministers after a Cabinet meeting, Abe said that he will further accelerate Abenomics and powerfully promote various policy measures under the new cabinet, after winning the public mandate in the House of Councillors election on July 10.

During the ministerial talks, Abe also said that the government will adopt a planned comprehensive economic stimulus package at a Cabinet meeting on Tuesday.

In the Cabinet revamp, Abe plans to retain Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Taro Aso and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, both linchpins in his administration, in order to make steady progress in a host of challenges including the attainment of economic recovery.

On Wednesday, Abe, who doubles as LDP president, will also shake up the executive lineup of the party.

One focus will be whether he will retain or replace LDP Secretary General Sadakazu Tanigaki, who suffered cervical cord damage from a fall while cycling and underwent surgery earlier this month.

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003113958

今回取り上げるのはlinchpinsです。linchpinを『ライトハウス英和辞典』(第5版 研究社)で調べてみますと、可算名詞で「輪止めくさび、(物の)かなめ、かなめとなる人」という意味であることがわかりました。今回は人物について述べられていますので、かなめとなる人、重要人物という意味で用いられていると考えられます。LDOCEには “the person or thing in a group, system etc that is most important, because everything depends on them” とありました。 “everything depends on them” という部分からその人物や事柄の重要度がうかがえます。

この表現は過去にも取り上げられておりました。(aqua)

linchpin#2 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

linchpin - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

twist 復習


梅雨が明け, 今年もレジャーシーズンが到来しました。夏の野外料理をもっと美味しくさせるレシピの工夫が紹介されています。

Add some twists to your next cookout

An outdoor barbecue is a great leisure activity in summer, but you can often end up having the same old menu items again and again.

However, you can break up this routine with some hints from food manufacturers, as they share some barbecue recipes using their products.

Make meat juicy 

Barbecue sauce can be used to marinate meat on the way to your destination, instead of taking the bottle of sauce with you. Ebara Foods Industry Inc. suggests marinating steak in the company’s Ohgon no Aji, with a suggested retail price of \540 for a 400-gram bottle. When the steak is marinated in the sauce, the meat not only soaks up the flavor, but also becomes juicier thanks to the fruit used in the seasoning. A lightly charred sauce also adds an appetizing aroma and color to the meat.

以下省略

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003085194

本日取り上げる表現は, 見出しにある “twist” です。

リーダーズ英和中辞典」(研究社)で調べると, “twist” は多義語であることが記されていました。そのなかでも, 今回は「特別な工夫[こつ, 要領, 秘訣]」という意味がもっとも適していると考えました。Oxford-Dictionaries.com には “a new treatment or outlook; a variation” と定義され, “She takes conventional subjects and gives them a twist.” という例が挙げられています。

日本語で, 普通と変わってひと工夫してあることを「ひねり」と表現することがあるように, 英語でも “twist” が用いられていて, 面白いと思いました。(Cayu)

twist of fate - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

walkie-talkie #2

 ベネズエラで食糧不足が深刻化しております。スーパーマーケットから食材は消え,政府が統制している店でわずかな食料を入手している状況のようです。住民の一人は,私たちは貧しかったが飢えたことは一度もなかったと述べ,マデュロ大統領就任した後にこのような状況になったと憤りを感じております。 

 記事の中で気になった単語は"walkie-talkie"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)には「携帯用無線電話機, トランシーバー」などという意味がありました。Oxford Dictionaries.comには"A portable two-way radio"と定義されております。(Ume)

Going hungry in Venezuela

Armao introduced me to several colectivo members in a slum called Catia. They appeared to be armed, and were carrying walkie-talkies.

After threatening to kick me out of the area, they agreed in the end to show me what the CLAP was aiming to achieve. I was taken to see a barren field - "which we aim to have ready for crops in eight months" - and several chili plants waiting to be planted.

It was, to say the least, disheartening.

I thought of my mother, and wondered whether this could be the solution for people like her, struggling to eat properly three times a day.

My mother, who's a staunch government supporter, truly believes it is.

"It will take time but it will happen," she says.

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-36913991

walkie-talkie - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から