Hatena::ブログ(Diary)

田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

2016-09-27

slob

 米大統領選のテレビ討論が始まりました。討論のテーマは雇用テロ,人種についてです。討論ではしばしば個人攻撃が起こりました。ヒラリー氏は,トランプ氏が税務申告を行った書類を開示しないことを批判しました。一方トランプ氏は,大統領になるための体力がないことや,公職中に私的なメールを送ったことを非難しました。

 記事の中で気になった単語は"slob"です。『Wisdom英和辞典第三版』(三省堂)には「⦅くだけて・けなして⦆まぬけ,ばか,だらしないやつ」などという意味がありました。Oxford Dictionaries.comには"informal A person who is lazy and has low standards of cleanliness"と定義されております。アメリカ大統領選挙まで2ヶ月を切りましたが,今後どのような討論が行われるのか気になります。(Ume)


Clinton: 'There is something he is hiding'

Mrs Clinton made a brief response to Mr Trump's attacks about her use of a private email server - which has haunted her on the campaign trail.

She said there were no excuses for the "mistake" and that she takes responsibility for it.

But she was also uncomfortable when defending her changing position on the controversial Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal.

Other debate highlights:

He said she did not have the stamina to be president, to which she replied that she visited 112 countries as secretary of state

African Americans are living "in hell" in the US due to gun violence, Mr Trump said

Mrs Clinton criticised him for saying climate change was a Chinese hoax

She was attacked by him for being weak on Islamic State militants and soft on Iran

"You've been fighting Isis [Islamic State group] your entire adult life,'' Mr Trump mocked

In a wider assault on his treatment of women, she said he had called women "pigs, slobs and dogs"



scaredy cat - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

go to the dogs - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

15年記念

本日このようなものをいただきました(式典そのものは出張のため欠席)。

   f:id:A30:20160927171248p:image

もう15年,されど15年。途中,転出のお誘いも正直,数回ありましたが,キャンパスの緑と学生の素直さにこころは動きませんでした。ときの流れはやきもの。もう少しここでがんばります。(UG)

get a load of 復習


James Patterson の小説『3rd degree』の冒頭をゼミで読みました。その時に学んだ、“get g load of”という表現を取り上げます。


ジーニアス英和辞典』によると「…を注意して見ろ, …に注意を払え」という意味だとわかりました。

主人公の友人のJillDVの被害を受けていますが、シャワーを浴びている時にぶつけたと嘘つき、この“You should get g load of how it looks.”とウィンクをして言います。

LDOCEによると“used to tell someone to look at or listen to something that is surprising or funny”と定義されており、例文で Get a load of that outfit! というのを見つけましたが、何か派手なドレスなど、驚くようなものを見つけた時にも使う俗語であることがわかりました。

一方で今回での使われ方は、loadに「積荷」という意味があるように、無理をして言っているような感じで、友人に直接は言えないけれど、気づいてほしいというJillの気持ちが含まれている気がしました。(lua)

take the nation by storm #3

アニメ映画君の名は。」が公開から28日間で興行収入100億円を突破しました。

Japanese animated film 'your name.' taking nation by storm

TOKYO — The animated film “your name.” is taking Japan by storm, with its box office revenues surpassing the 10 billion yen ($99 million) mark in just 28 days since its release, marking a milestone for a Japanese animation other than the works of renowned director Hayao Miyazaki.

Since Makoto Shinkai’s blockbuster hit about two teenagers in a body-swapping fantasy opened at cinemas on Aug 26, it has drawn 7.74 million people and throngs of fans have scurried to visit destinations featured in the film.

It is now the ninth-highest grossing Japanese film, and the only Japanese animation to rack up more than 10 billion yen in revenues apart from Miyazaki’s works.

https://www.japantoday.com/smartphone/view/entertainment/japanese-animated-film-your-name-taking-nation-by-storm

今回取り上げるのは、“take the nation by storm”という表現です。“storm”と聞くと、名詞の「嵐、暴風」や動詞の「激しい勢いで突進する、強襲する」といった意味が思い浮かびます。そこで“take somewhere by storm”を『ジーニアス英和辞典』(大修館書店)で調べてみると、私が連想した「〈とりで、町など〉を強襲して占領する」の他にも「〈聴衆など〉を魅了する」を意味すると分かりました。さらにLDOCEでは、“to be very successful in a particular place” と定義されています。したがって、ここでは「日本中に「君の名は。」旋風が巻き起こる、日本中を虜にする」などと表せます。(ninetails)

take business world by storm - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

take A by storm #2 - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

yolk 復習

勉強などに集中する際、子供たちの脳の働きを良くするのに役立つ食べ物には、このようなものがあります。

Top 5 foods to boost your child's brainpower

Now school has started again, it’s the perfect time to start thinking about the best foods to help concentration. We’re all aware of the importance of enough fruit and vegetables, but what else can we offer our children to optimise their chances of having a good day at school? Here are my top five foods to include in your child’s diet weekly, from 12 months of age:

Eggs

Children’s brains are developing at a significant rate, especially for the first years of their life. Choline is a very important vitamin that plays an integral role in this, as it is vital for the creation of memory cells deep within the brain. Rich in choline, the yolk of an egg almost meets the daily needs of children up to eight years. Egg are also high in protein and contain iron, folate and vitamin A – all of which are important for growth, repair and development of cells. So encourage your kids to eat eggs regularly, unless they are allergic.

Oily fish

Rich in omega-3 which is vital for brain development and health, oily fish has so many benefits. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential components of the building blocks needed for cell development. Certain types of omega-3 fats are the most abundant fat found in the brain and some studies have shown they may help manage behavioural problems due to their role in neurotransmitter function. Other studies have linked poorer reading ability with low levels of omega-3 and supplementation was linked to improved memory function.

Oats, cereals & wholegrain breads

Packed with carbohydrates, wholegrains provide essential glucose and energy to fuel the brain. They are also full of B-vitamins, which nourish a healthy nervous system. Numerous studies have shown that a breakfast filled with wholegrains improves short-term memory and attention, when compared with refined carbohydrates or no morning meal at all. Wholegrains are found in oats, granary breads, rye, wild rice, quinoa and buckwheat. Wholegrain foods are also high in fibre, which regulates glucose supply into the body.

Beans

High in protein and packed with vitamins and minerals, beans are an excellent food choice for your kids. Kidney and pinto beans contain more omega-3 fats than other beans which we know are important for brain growth and function. Not only do they release energy slowly which keeps them filled with energy, it will help them concentrate in the classroom if they’re enjoyed at lunch time.

Milk, yogurt & cheese

Milk, yogurt and cheese are so nutritious and are packed with protein and B-vitamins which are essential for growth of brain tissue, neurotransmitters and enzymes which all play an important role in the brain. Another benefit is these foods are high in calcium which is vital for growth of strong and healthy teeth and bones. Children have different requirements for calcium depending on their age, but you should aim to include two to three calcium-rich sources a day. For more information about calcium requirements, click here.

http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/top-5-foods-boost-your-childs-brainpower

今回取り上げる単語は"yolk"です。

文脈的に、卵に関する言葉だと推測することができます。

LDOCEでは"the yellow part in the center of an egg"と表現されておりました。

ジーニアス英和辞典』第4版(大修館)で調べてみると、「(卵の)黄身、卵黄」や「羊毛脂」と記載されています。

因みに「白身」は単純に"white"と表し、"separate an egg into yolk and white"で「卵を黄身と白身に分ける」という意味になります。(Akim)

in jeopardy #2

オペラ座の怪人』の呪いかもしれません。

Fire damage at Mogador Theatre threatens Phantom’s Paris premiere

The 30th anniversary production of The Phantom of the Opera could be in jeopardy after a fire hit the Paris theatre where the show is due to be staged.

It is set to be the first time the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical has played in Paris and will star Sierra Boggess as Christine.

The production is scheduled to open for previews at the Mogador Theatre in Paris on October 4, however the venue confirmed that a fire had broken out in the building's basement on September 25.

The stage and parts of the set were damaged in the incident, which occurred shortly before 9am on Sunday morning.

A statement from the Mogador's management confirmed no casualties had been reported, but that the extent of the required repairs to the stage and set was not yet clear.

It is not known whether the production will be postponed as a result of the fire, however the theatre added that the damage needed to be assessed before a decision is made about the show's future.

The cause of the fire is still unknown.

The 1,800-seat theatre, in Paris' ninth arrondissement, is owned by Stage Entertainment, and the show is a collaboration between the Really Useful Group and Stage Entertainment.

https://www.thestage.co.uk/news/2016/fire-damage-at-mogador-theatre-threatens-phantoms-paris-premiere/

今回取り上げるのはin jeopardyです。jeopardyの発音記号は/ˈdʒepədi/となります。

ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版、大修館書店)では「(危害・損失の)危険(にさらされていること)」とありました。

フランス語からきていて、チェスなどのゲームで「引き分け」を表していましたが、そこから「危険な状態」の意味合いをもつようになったそうです。

また、似た音が入っているdangerも古フランス語から由来しています。jeopardyはdangerよりも形式ばった言い方だそうです。

よって、この原因不明の火事によって「来月、予定通りに劇が上演されるか分からない状態」にあることがわかります。(flyingbird)

put 〜 in jeopardy - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

cut back on imbibing for

老舗メーカー・小澤酒造によると, 現在, 酒類の国内市場は縮小している一方, 海外では好調な売り上げを維持しているそうです。

Sake finds popularity overseas as local market slows down

Ozawa Shuzo brewery hums with activity as boxed bottles of sake are loaded onto trucks. But with the domestic market shrinking, more and more of it is bound for burgeoning overseas markets where the centuries old drink is all the rage.

The small establishment has recently drawn interest from potential new customers in Thailand, Vietnam and South Korea, on top of a coterie of existing ones in the United States, France and Singapore.

中略

Rapidly ageing Japan has no shortage of old men. But many have cut back on imbibing for health reasons while companies trim the entertainment budgets that once financed all-night drinking sessions.

以下省略

http://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0003239295

今回取り上げる表現は “cut back on imbibing for” です。

“imbibe” は今夏の裏ゼミで「(光・熱などを)吸収する」という意味であることを学びましたが, 今回はさらに『新英和大辞典』(第五版, 研究社)で調べると, 「<酒を>(むやみに)飲む(drink)」とありました。

English.Oxforddictionaries.com には, “drink (alcohol)” と定義され, “They were imbibing far too many pitchers of beer.” という例が挙げられています。

以上より, 今回の “…cut back on imbibing for” は, (健康を気遣って)アルコールの摂取を控える, と捉えられるのではないかと思いました。(Cayu)

過去に “cut back on the frills” という記事が取り上げられていました。

cut back on the frills - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

get a load of

今回は,ゼミ読んだJames Pattersonの3RD DEGREEから表現を取り上げます。

She tossed her sweatshirt over her shoulder, seemingly caught off guard. “Mashed myself getting out of the shower,” she said. “You should get a load of how it looks.” She winked.

注目する表現は,“get a load of”です。これは,主人公のLindsayと同僚のJillがペットの犬を連れてジョギングし終わった後,Jillがシャツを着替えている際に言った中から出てきました。

意味を確認するために,『ジーニアス英和辞典』(大修館書店)を引いてみると,通例命令文で「を(注意して)見ろ[聞け]」や「に注意を払え」といった定義があります。さらにCambridge Dictionaryを見てみると,“used to tell someone to pay attention to a person or thing that is interesting, surprising, or attractive”と定義されており,興味深いものや驚くもの,ひきつけるものなどにも用いられるようです。(Nao)

well-wisher 復習

熊本県上天草市にある天草五橋ギネス記録に挑戦するイベントが行われました。

Pinky promise’ for quake-hit Kumamoto sets world record

KAMIAMAKUSA, Kumamoto Prefecture--It suffered a series of devastating earthquakes, but Kumamoto Prefecture can count on the support of well-wishers who linked pinky fingers for its recovery, setting a Guinness World Record in the process.

The crowd united to make the world’s longest ever “pinky promise” chain on Sept. 25, joining pinky fingers in a symbolic gesture made when people swear on a promise together. The move is said to demonstrate the importance of the promise, as well as intimacy and trust between those involved.

As well as to pledge support for Kumamoto Prefecture’s recovery from the series of April earthquakes, the event was held to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the opening of five local bridges, collectively called “Amakusa Gokyo” (Amakusa five bridges) that connect the main island of Kyushu with Amakusa.

Interlocking their little fingers, the 2,267 participants arranged themselves in a line, stretching about 2.2 kilometers from bridge No. 2, Ooyano bashi, to bridge No. 4, Maeshima bashi, on Route 226.

以下省略

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201609260053.html

今回取り上げる表現は “well-wisher” です。wishにerがついているので、何か願掛けをする人のことを表しているのではないかと思われました。『ライトハウス英和辞典』(第5版 研究社)で調べてみますと、可算名詞で「人の幸福を祈る人、好意を寄せる人、支持者、応援者」という意味があることがわかりました。Merriam-Websterには “someone who wants another person to be happy, successful, etc.” と説明されており、人の幸せを願う人以外に、人の成功を願う人のことも表すようです。今回は熊本地震復興を願う人々をwell-wishersと表現しています。

この表現は過去にも取り上げられておりました。(aqua

well-wisher - 田邉祐司ゼミ 常時英心:言葉の森から

pinky promise

九州本土と天草の島々を結ぶ天草五橋が開通してから50年のなったのを祝うイベントが開かれました。イベントでは1658人が一列になり、熊本地震被災地復興を願いながら指切りげんまんをし、ギネス世界記録を更新しました。

Pinky promise’ for quake-hit Kumamoto sets world record

KAMIAMAKUSA, Kumamoto Prefecture--It suffered a series of devastating earthquakes, but Kumamoto Prefecture can count on the support of well-wishers who linked pinky fingers for its recovery, setting a Guinness World Record in the process.

The crowd united to make the world’s longest ever “pinky promise” chain on Sept. 25, joining pinky fingers in a symbolic gesture made when people swear on a promise together. The move is said to demonstrate the importance of the promise, as well as intimacy and trust between those involved.

As well as to pledge support for Kumamoto Prefecture’s recovery from the series of April earthquakes, the event was held to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the opening of five local bridges, collectively called “Amakusa Gokyo” (Amakusa five bridges) that connect the main island of Kyushu with Amakusa.

Interlocking their little fingers, the 2,267 participants arranged themselves in a line, stretching about 2.2 kilometers from bridge No. 2, Ooyano bashi, to bridge No. 4, Maeshima bashi, on Route 226.

Waving their arms up and down, they chanted, “Thank you, Amakusa Gokyo! Hang in there, Kumamoto!” beating the previous pinky promise chain record of 1,343 people, which was achieved in Chiba Prefecture in December last year.

Although the interlocking fingers were at one point accidentally cut off in the middle of the chain, an official adjudicator and observers of the Guinness World Records visually assessed the chain and confirmed that the Amakusa pinky promise chain with 1,658 people smashed the existing world record.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201609260053.html

今回注目した表現は、“pinky promise”です。よく知られているように、“pinky”は「小指」、“promise”は「約束」を意味します。これらの意味から、“pinky promise”は日本において約束をするために行われる「ゆびきり(指切り)」という意味になります。“pinky swear”でも同じ意味です。

ちなみに、指切りは中国で誕生し、アジアに広がっていったものだそうです。ベトナムでは小指ではなく、人差し指で指切りを行うなど、国によって方法は異なります。

(Blue Sky)

scrawny

幕末から明治にかけて西洋化が進むにつれ、天皇の装いも和装から洋装へと変わりました。

When Japan's Emperor Dropped His Kimono

Emperor Meiji sat for a photograph in 1872 wearing a courtier’s robe and hat that reached for the sky — a symbol of tradition in the East. But to Europeans? Not so much. The 20-year-old leader, despite all the pomp, looked baby-faced and scrawny. But by the time he sat for a new photograph one year later, Meiji was sporting a beard and military regalia, and had parted his hair in a fashion not unlike Jefferson Davis.

In the 1850s, Japan ended its entrenched isolationist policy on the world stage to open its doors. The West rushed in and built trading hubs in Japanese cities like Sapporo and Yokohama. The Meiji emperor, meanwhile, was coming of age, and the young leader — thanks to Japan’s newly minted Western ties — influenced generations to come on how they would look and dress in Japan.

In 1865, men are in skirts. A decade later, an elite man is to be wearing a suit or growing a beard.

Robert Hellyer, Wake Forest University

He was made into a “public figure in the European mold,” says Robert Hellyer, associate professor of history at Wake Forest University, who teaches about East Asia and Japan.

(以下省略)

http://www.ozy.com/flashback/when-japans-emperor-dropped-his-kimono/71303

今回取り上げる単語は、scrawnyです。

ジーニアス英和辞典』(第五版,大修館)で調べたところ、「やせこけた」と載っておりました。

同じような意味の単語でscraggyとskinnyがあり、それぞれ「(骨が浮き出るほど)やせこけた」、「やせこけた、がりがりの、骨と皮ばかりの」と定義されておりました。

Oxford Dictionary of English (Second Edition Reserved, Oxford University Press)によると、 “unattractively thin and bony”とのことでした。

個人的な解釈として、記事内で “baby-faced and scrawny”と表現することにより、天皇はまだ幼く決して強い存在ではなかったことを表しているように思いました。(Gomez